• English
  • العربية
  • 中文
  • Français
  • Русский
  • Español

You are here

Establishing Guidance Levels in X Ray Guided Medical Interventional Procedures: A Pilot Study

English STI/PUB/1346 978-92-0-107308-2
147 39 32.00 2009

Download PDF (3.09 MB)


The number of interventional procedures guided by X ray imaging is increasing every year. Given the medical necessity of these procedures, it is vital that public confidence in these techniques is not undermined by the adverse consequences of high radiation doses. Guidance levels have proved to be a useful tool for optimization in general radiography, since they provide the opportunity of comparing the radiation doses that radiologists deliver to patients with those prescribed by their colleagues. However, the possibility of establishing guidance levels as a tool for optimization of interventional procedures has been the subject of scientific debate. The research described in this publication has brought the debate closer to a common understanding and consensus. Moreover, it has demonstrated its value in practice, by identifying hospitals with higher doses and then achieving a substantial dose reduction by means of the optimization of protection implemented during the project in these hospitals.

More Information on reusing IAEA copyright material.

How to order

Ordering Locally

Please use the following links for an up-to-date list of IAEA distributors:

Distributors of IAEA Publications

Orders and requests for information may also be addressed to:

Marketing and Sales Unit
International Atomic Energy Agency
Vienna International Centre
PO Box 100, A-1400 Vienna,

Tel.: +43 1 2600 22529, +43 1 2600 22530
Fax: +43 1 2600 29302
Email: sales.publications@iaea.org

Download order form

How to Access IAEA e-books


  1. Employment
  2. Women
  3. Press

Stay in touch