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Thorium Resources as Co- and By-products of Rare Earth Deposits

IAEA TECDOC No. 1892
English IAEA-TECDOC-1892 978-92-0-163319-4
80 18 18.00 2019

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Description

Research has been published over the past few decades on the possible use of thorium in various nuclear power reactor types. Therefore, it is worthwhile to analyse the supply situation for additional thorium generated as a by-product of commodities produced for non-nuclear purposes. This publication provides information on the natural occurrence of thorium, the geology of thorium and potential thorium resources. It presents an overview of exploration and evaluation of projects, including studies for project feasibility, principles of ore processing, as well as market and production scenarios. Selected examples of deposits containing thorium as a potential co-product or by-product are presented as case studies.

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Keywords

Thorium, Carbon-Free Energy, NP, Nuclear Power, Reactor Fuel, REE, Rare Earth Elements, Nuclear Waste, Efficiency, Uranium, Plutonium, By-Product Production, Resource Assessment, Mining, Processing, Markets and Economics, Good Practices, Health, Safety, Environment, Waste Management, Mine Closure, Thorium Storage, Policy, Regulation, Social Acceptance, UNFC, UN Framework Classification for Fossil Energy and Mineral Reserve Resources, Division of Nuclear Fuel Cycle, Waste Technology, Geology, Geochemical Behaviour, Primary Deposits, Thorium Provinces, Thorium Resources, Placer Deposits, Rare Metals Market, HMS, Heavy Mineral Sands, Feasibility Study, Case Studies, Australia, Brazil, Canada, India, South Africa, USA, THOREX, Thorium Recovery by Extraction, BSM, Beach Sand Mineral, REO, Rare Earth Oxides, THM, Total Heavy Minerals

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