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Waste from Innovative Types of Reactors and Fuel Cycles

A Preliminary Study

English STI/PUB/1822 978-92-0-102818-1
117 32 41.00 2019

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For reactors currently operating, the types of wastes expected to be generated under normal operating regime are known and, aside from a few problematic wastes (such as graphite, tritium and radiocarbon) most of these wastes have clearly defined cradle-to-grave (end-to-end) pathways. However, for advanced and innovative reactors and their fuel cycles, some waste types may either have new or different properties or might be problematic for processing with the currently available technologies. One of the primary challenges for advanced and innovative reactors and their nuclear fuel cycles is that solutions must be identified for all eventually problematic wastes prior to initiating construction of these facilities. This publication sets the stage for considering the waste generation of advanced fuel fabrication, reactor operation and decommissioning, reprocessing of spent fuel and waste pathways early in the development of new reactors and their associated fuel cycles. It describes waste flows in broad chemical and physical terms and identifies possible processing, recycling and disposition pathways. The publication is intended to support the nuclear industry in taking an early and integrated approach to waste management.

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IAEA Nuclear Energy, Nuclear Reactors, Radioactive Waste Disposal, Nuclear Fuels, Nuclear Fuel Cycles, Types of Reactor, Operation, Graphite, Tritium, Radiocarbon, Reactor Operation, Decommissioning, Reprocessing, Waste Management, Waste Assessment, Methodology, Classification, Categorization, Properties, Waste Inventory, Innovative Reactors, Design Measures, Molten Salt Fast Reactors, MSFRs, Outage, Waste Streams, Problematic Waste, Conclusions, Recommendations, Research and Development, R&D, Mixed Uranium-Plutonium Oxide, MOX, Gas Cooled Fast Reactor System, Innovative Nuclear Energy System, INS, Spent Nuclear Fuel, SNF

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