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IAEA Concludes Long Term Operational Safety Review of South Africa’s Koeberg Nuclear Power Plant

Koeberg, South Africa

An International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) team of experts today completed a review of long term operational safety at the Koeberg Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) in South Africa.

The SALTO (Safety Aspects of Long Term Operation) review mission was conducted at the request of the Government of South Africa’s Department of Mineral Resources and Energy from 22 until 31 March. It focused on aspects essential to the safe Long Term Operation (LTO) of two units of Koeberg NPP, South Africa’s only nuclear power plant operated by the public utility Eskom.

Unit 1 went into commercial operation in 1984 and Unit 2 in 1985. Eskom is planning to extend operation of the units by 20 years until 2045 for a total operational lifetime of 60 years each. The plant is currently carrying out a periodic safety review to identify safety improvements for the LTO period.

The ten-person team comprising experts from Argentina, Belgium, Czech Republic, France, Hungary, Pakistan, Spain, Sweden and two IAEA staff members reviewed the plant’s preparedness, organization and programmes for safe LTO.

“We observed that staff at the plant is professional, open and receptive to suggestions for improvement. Despite challenges, the plant has eliminated several deviations from IAEA Safety Standards in ageing management activities and preparation for safe LTO identified during the Pre-SALTO mission in 2019,” said team leader Gabor Petofi, Senior Nuclear Safety Officer at the IAEA. “The SALTO team encourages Eskom and the plant management to address further findings made by this latest mission and to implement all remaining activities for safe LTO.”

The team identified good practices and good performances that will be shared with the nuclear industry globally. The team concluded the plant had:

  • Integrated a corrective action programme to extensively consider operating experience for long term operation.
  • Used a template to collect vital importance parameters from the original equipment manufacturers (OEM) to establish the extended qualified life of electrical components.
  • Applied the so-called capability index to characterize health, attitude and other enablers of staff members to assess if they are fit to perform a task.

The team also provided recommendations and suggestions to further enhance the preparations for safe LTO, including that Eskom should:

  • Comprehensively review and implement all plant programmes relevant for long term operation.
  • Complete the revalidation of qualification of cables in the containment for the long term operation period.
  • Ensure full functionality of the containment structure monitoring system.

“We appreciate the IAEA support in plant ageing management and preparation for safe LTO,” said Riedewaan Bakardien, Eskom's Chief Nuclear Officer. “The LTO of Koeberg NPP up to 2045 is a vital part of Eskom's energy planning strategy. The results of this mission will help us finalize our activities for safe LTO in alignment with IAEA Safety Standards.”

The plant management said it was committed to implement the recommendations and requested that the IAEA schedule a SALTO follow-up mission to Koeberg NPP in 2024.

The team provided a draft report to the plant management at the end of the mission. The plant management and the South African National Nuclear Regulator (NNR) will have an opportunity to make factual comments on the draft. A final report will be submitted to the plant management, the NNR and the Government of South Africa within three months.

“The government continues to exercise policy oversight aimed at ensuring the successful implementation of the safe LTO programme and the IAEA’s support is very much appreciated in achieving this objective,” said Katse Maphoto, Chief Director of South Africa’s Department of Mineral Resources and Energy.


The Koeberg mission was the 50th IAEA SALTO mission conducted since 2005. General information about SALTO missions can be found on the IAEA Website. A SALTO peer review is a comprehensive safety review addressing strategy and key elements for the safe LTO of nuclear power plants. They complement OSART missions, which are designed as a review of programmes and activities essential to operational safety. Neither SALTO nor OSART reviews are regulatory inspections, nor are they design reviews or substitutes for an exhaustive assessment of a plant's overall safety status.

LTO of nuclear power plants is defined as operation beyond an established time frame determined by the license term, the original plant design, relevant standards, or national regulations. As stated in IAEA safety standards, to maintain a plant’s fitness for service, consideration should be given to life limiting processes and features of systems, structures, and components, as well as to reasonably practicable safety upgrades to enhance the safety of the plant to a level approaching that of modern plants.

The IAEA Safety Standards provide a robust framework of fundamental principles, requirements, and guidance to ensure safety. They reflect an international consensus and serve as a global reference for protecting people and the environment from the harmful effects of ionizing radiation.

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