Radiation Treatment of Wastewater for Reuse with Particular Focus on Wastewaters Containing Organic Pollutants

Closed for proposals

Project Type

Coordinated Research Project

Project Code

F23029

CRP

1539

Approved Date

2 September 2010

Status

4 - Closed

Start Date

15 November 2010

Expected End Date

15 November 2016

Completed Date

15 November 2016

Participating Countries

Algeria
Brazil
China
Ecuador
Egypt
France
Hungary
Italy
Japan
Malaysia
Poland
Portugal
Republic of Korea
Romania
Saudi Arabia
Türkiye
United States of America

Description

Chronic shortages of water in arid and semi-arid regions of the world and environmental policy regulations have stimulated the use of appropriate technologies in treating wastewater for reuse, for example, in urban irrigation, industrial uses (cooling, boilers, and laundry), gardens and parks, cleaning purposes, etc. Additionally, wastewater treatment is becoming ever more critical in large industrial centres due to diminishing water resources, increasing water disposal costs, and stricter discharge regulations that have lowered permissible contaminant levels in waste streams. Industrial effluents often carry chemical contaminants such as organics, petrochemicals, pesticides, dyes and heavy metal ions. The standard biological treatment processes commonly used for wastewater treatment are not capable of treating many of the complex organic chemicals that are found in varying quantities in the wastewaters (e.g. persistent organic pollutants, POPs). Radiation-initiated degradation of organics helps to transform various pollutants into less harmful substances or reduced to the levels below the permissible concentrations. Studies in several Member States (MS) have demonstrated the usefulness and efficiency of radiation technology for treatment of different organic pollutants. The lack of comparative data in pilot scale studies using radiation technique (alone or in combination with other methods) is the main problem in further utilization of this method for wastewater treatment. There is a need to study further the radiation effects, reliability and cost on specific group of organic pollutants in cooperation with other stakeholders who are involved in using other technologies.
This CRP was formulated based on the recommendation of a consultants meeting held in 2008 and improved further in communication with external experts, two SAGNA members and discussed and revised in a meeting with the past-congress president of IWA-World Water Congress and a well known international expert from the Institute for Water Quality, Resources and Waste Management of Vienna University of Technology.
The CRP intends (i) to study the effects, reliability and costs of room temperature radiation processing technology and determine the optimized radiation dose and procedures, in combination with other processes, to treat wastewater contaminated with low and high concentration of organic compounds; (ii) to validate analytical methods to characterize and evaluate effects of by-products in treated wastewaters; (iii) to obtain data on radiation method to treat wastewater with different concentration of organic pollutants and compare it with data from conventional and novel technologies; (iv) to develop guidelines for selection of areas where the radiation treatment has high potential for rendering treated wastewater suitable for industrial and irrigation purposes.
The CRP teams envisaged to participate will comprise members drawn from industry (effluent managers), environmental regulatory authorities, and Members of International Water Association (IWA) apart from radiation technology and analytical scientists.

Objectives

To enhance Member States capacity in applying radiation technology in combination with other techniques for improving environmental safety aspects through effective treatment of wastewater contaminated with organic pollutants and support reuse of treated wastewater for urban irrigation and industrial purposes. This is in line with the objective of the project 2.5.2.5 to enhance Member States capacity in applying radiation technology for managing agricultural and industrial waste and effluents and decontamination of biological agents.

Specific objectives

• Study the effects, reliability and costs of room temperature radiation processing technology for specific groups of contaminants and specific application areas where the radiation technology is promising according to the assessment of existing knowledge.
• Assess the analytical methods to characterize and evaluate the effects on micro-pollutant reduction as well as impacts of radiation by-products in treated wastewaters (aquatic eco-toxicity studies)
• Determination of optimized radiation dose and procedures for different application cases, in combination with other pre- and post-treatment processes for contaminated wastewaters
• Develop guidelines for selection of areas where the radiation treatment has high potential for rendering treated wastewater suitable for industrial and irrigation purposes including boundary conditions for successful application.

Impact

The CRP was expected to enhance the capability of Member States in the use of radiation processing technology to treat wastewater contaminated with organic pollutants and support reuse of treated wastewater .
This CRP investigated a wide variety of challenging pollutants in wastewaters originating from opium processing, cork industry, pharmaceutical industries, textile wastes, plastic industries, chemical fertilizers, municipal wastes, etc. The CRP focused on contemporary and emerging pollutants such as antibiotics, antidepressants, pharmaceuticals, soda wastes, reactive dyes, textile dyes, pesticides, oleo chemicals, endocrine disruptors, pathogens, PFOA, and enteric viruses. The ability to address this diverse set of pollutants with one core technology is noteworthy.
The CRP resulted in development and testing of new ecotoxicity assays. The inclusion of ecotoxicity assays in determining the potential environmental toxicity of the radiation technology treated wastewater is also of significance. The rationale for including ecotoxicity as an end-point measurement of radiation treatment of this diversity of pollutants was novel. The choice of a particular ecotoxicity assay was based on the predicted radiation treatment byproducts.
A variety of analytical methods were either adapted during the course of this CRP. These included pulse radiolysis with kinetic spectroscopic detection (for radiation chemistry), mammalian lung 8549 and mouse RAW 264.7 cells (for ecotoxicity measurements), ELISA, ZR-75 cancer cell lines and the yeast two-hybrid assay (for measuring estrogenic activity), analytical techniques (for directly measuring endocrine disruptors) and the DNA comet assay (to visualize microbial DNA damage). In addition to the analytical methods, considerable effort was spent towards designing and fabrication of hardware to facilitate these research needs.
This CRP has allowed for a deeper understanding of the underlying chemistry that is occurring when different type of wastewater is exposed to varying ionizing radiation sources.
There was significant progress made in the conceptual design and specifications of a movable/transportable eBeam treatment plant.
A significant achievement of the CRP is that an industrial plant to treat 3000 m3 of textile dyeing wastewater has been built in China.
Brazil has undertaken a programme to develop mobile electron accelerators to demonstrate on-site treatment of effluents from various industries.
This CRP provided an outstanding opportunity for a number of individuals to be trained in various aspects of irradiation technology. This resulted in several Masters theses and Ph.D dissertations. Developing a deep science talent pool is critical to the success and sustainability of this technology. 64 peer-reviewed publications, 36conference proceedings, 4 patents and invention disclosures, 16 Ph.D. thesis and 20 M.S. thesis were published during the course of this CRP.

Relevance

Industrial effluents often carry chemical contaminants such as organics, petrochemicals, pesticides, dyes and heavy metal ions. The standard biological treatment processes commonly used for wastewater treatment are not capable of treating many of the complex organic chemicals that are found in varying quantities in the wastewaters (e.g. persistent organic pollutants, POPs). Another important problem arising is the increasing presence of pharmaceuticals and endocrine disruptors compounds in municipal wastewater entering into the receiving stream, for which new treatment techniques and procedures are needed to remove excreted drugs before releasing the effluent into public waterways or reuse. There is a need to develop effective and efficient technologies that help to transform various pollutants into less harmful substances or reduce their levels below the permissible concentrations. This CRP is a step in this direction.

CRP Publications

Type

M.Sc. Thesis

Year

2015

Description

Mate Mihalovics, 2015, Investigation of radical transfer reactions during advanced oxidation processes.

Country/Organization

Hungary

Type

M.Sc. Thesis

Year

2014

Description

Laszlo Szabo, 2014, A comparison of the radiation induced degradation of salicilyc acid derivatives in aqueous solutions.

Country/Organization

Hungary

Type

Journal publication

Year

2015

Description

. La Chimica e l''Industria (2015) (in press).

Country/Organization

Italy

Type

Journal publication

Year

2015

Description

Science of the Total Environment (submited).

Country/Organization

Hungary

Type

International Journal

Year

2012

Description

Trimethoprim: Kinetic and Mechanistic Considerations in Photochemical Environmental Fate and AOP Treatment, Water Research 46 (2012) 1327-1336.

Country/Organization

USA

Type

M.Sc. Thesis

Year

2014

Description

Gyuri Sagi, 2014, High-energy ionizing radiation induce decomposition of sulphametasol.

Country/Organization

Hungary

Type

Journal publication

Year

2015

Description

Journal of the Korean Physical Society (in press)

Country/Organization

Korea, Republic of

Type

International Journal

Year

2012

Description

Ionizing radiation induced reactions of 2,6-dichloroaniline in dilute aqueous solution, Radiat. Phys. Chem. 81 (2012) 1499-1502.

Country/Organization

Hungary

Type

Journal Publication

Year

2011

Description

High power accelerators for environmental applications, Journal of the Korean Physical Society 59 6 (2011) 3485-3488.

Country/Organization

Korea

Type

Journal publication

Year

2014

Description

Israel Journal of Chemistry 54 (2014) 233–241.

Country/Organization

Hungary

Type

Journal publication

Year

2015

Description

Journal of hazardous Materials (2015).

Country/Organization

Korea, Republic of

Type

Journal publication

Year

2015

Description

Desalination and Water Treatment (2015) 1–12.

Country/Organization

Egypt

Type

M.Sc. Thesis

Year

2015

Description

Montanari, S., 2015, Sinergy of physical-chemical processes for the requalification of water contaminated by organic matter, Department of Industrial Chemistry, Bologna University.

Country/Organization

Italy

Type

Journal publication

Year

2015

Description

. CLEAN-Air, soil water (submitted).

Country/Organization

Italy

Type

M.Sc. Thesis

Year

2015

Description

Shimaa ElBakry, 2015, Radiation Synthesis of Imprinted Polymers for Waste Water Treatment, Faculty of Science (for Girls), AlAzhar University

Country/Organization

Egypt

Type

International Journal

Year

2012

Description

Operation of industrial-scale electron beam wastewater treatment plant, Radiation Physics and Chemistry 81 (2012) 1475-1478.

Country/Organization

Korea

Type

Journal publication

Year

2015

Description

Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis. Special issue on Pharmaceuticals in Environmental Media, Biota, Food Commodities and Work Place: Analytical Approaches. 106 (2015) 52–60

Country/Organization

Hungary

Type

Journal publication

Year

2015

Description

Radiat. Phys. Chem. 108 (2015) 102–105.

Country/Organization

China

Type

M.Sc. Thesis

Year

2014

Description

YUN, J.H., 2014, Development of film dosimetry system, Dept. of Industrial Application, Chungnam University.

Country/Organization

Korea, Republic of

Type

International Journal

Year

in print

Description

Hydroxyl Radical Oxidation of Cylindrospermopsin (Cyanobacterial Toxin) and its Role in the Photochemical Transformation, Environ. Sci. Technol. (in press)

Country/Organization

USA

Type

Journal publication

Year

2016

Description

Radiat. Phys. Chem. 119 (2016) 194–199.

Country/Organization

China

Type

International Journal

Year

2012

Description

Mechanistic considerations for the degradation of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) by sonolysis: Effect of argon vs. oxygen saturated solutions, UltrasonicsSonochemistry 19 (2012) 959-968.

Country/Organization

USA

Type

M.Sc. Thesis

Year

2014

Description

LEE, J.H., 2014, Development of conversion system of X-ray from electron beam, Dept. of Industrial Application, Chungnam University.

Country/Organization

Korea, Republic of

Type

International Journal

Year

2012

Description

Radiation degradation of pharmaceutical residues in water: chloramphenicol, Radiat. Phys. Chem. 81 (2012) 1489-1494.

Country/Organization

Hungary

Type

International Journal

Year

2012

Description

Effect of ionizing radiation on antioxidant compounds present in cork wastewater, Water Sci. (2012)Technol.doi:10.2166/wst.2012.544.

Country/Organization

Portugal

Type

International Journal

Year

2012

Description

Mineralization of aqueous phenolate solutions: a combination of irradiation treatment and wet oxidation, Radiat. Phys. Chem. 81 (2012) 1484-1488

Country/Organization

Hungary

Type

Ph.D. thesis

Year

2016

Description

Krisztina Kovacs, Radiation induced degradation of fenilurea herbicides (under preparation)

Country/Organization

Hungary

Type

Journal publication

Year

2013

Description

Radiation Physics and Chemistry, 83 (2013) 86–89.

Country/Organization

Poland

Type

Journal publication

Year

2016

Description

J. Phys Chem. (submitted)

Country/Organization

Hungary

Type

Journal publication

Year

2016

Description

Radiat. Phys. Chem. (accepted).

Country/Organization

Hungary

Type

Journal publication

Year

2014

Description

Environmental Science and Pollution Research International, 21 (2014) 12135 – 12142.

Country/Organization

Italy

Type

International Journal

Year

2011

Description

Mechanism of azo dye degradation in Advanced Oxidation Processes: Radiolytic degradation of Sulfanilic Acid Azochromotrop and its parent compounds in aqueous solution, Radiation Physics and Chemistry, 80 (2011) 462-470.

Country/Organization

Hungary

Type

International Journal

Year

2012

Description

Oxidative Degradation of Alternative Gasoline Oxygenates in Aqueous Solution by Ultrasonic Irradiation: Mechanistic Study, Sci. Total Environ. 430 (2012) 246–259.

Country/Organization

USA

Type

International Journal

Year

2012

Description

Comparing Extraction Buffers to Identify Optimal Method to Extract Somatic Coliphages from Sewage Sludges, Bioresources Technol. (2012). (in press)

Country/Organization

USA

Type

Journal publication

Year

2014

Description

Radiation Physics and Chemistry, 96 (2014) 120–134.

Country/Organization

Hungary

Type

M.Sc. Thesis

Year

2014

Description

Vanessa Honda Ogihara-Silva, 2014, Assessment of toxicity and degradation of fluoxetine in water solution and sewage when treated by electron beam irradiation, Universidade de São Paulo.

Country/Organization

Brazil

Type

International Journal

Year

2012

Description

Photochemical Fate of Antidepressant Pharmaceuticals in Simulated Natural Waters, J. Hazardous Materials 217-281 (2012) 382-390.

Country/Organization

USA

Type

Journal publication

Year

2012

Description

Free Radical Research, 46 (2012) 861–871

Country/Organization

Japan

Type

Journal publication

Year

2014

Description

Nuclear Science and Techniques (accepted)

Country/Organization

China

Type

International Journal

Year

2012

Description

Recent advances in structure and reactivity of dissolved organic matter: Radiation chemistry of non-isolated natural organic matter and selected model compounds, Water Sci. Technol. 66 (2012) 1941-1949.

Country/Organization

USA

Type

Ph.D. thesis

Year

2016

Description

Laszlo Szabo, Free radical chemistry of penicillin derivatives (under preparation)

Country/Organization

Hungary

Type

Journal publication

Year

2016

Description

Radiat. Phys. Chem. (accepted).

Country/Organization

China

Type

International Journal

Year

2012

Description

High-energy ionizing radiation initiated decomposition of acetovanillone, Radiat. Phys. Chem. 81 (2012) 1495-1498.

Country/Organization

Hungary

Type

Journal Publication

Year

2011

Description

Electron beam flue gas treatment for thermal power station ‘Sviloza’ AD in Bulgaria, Journal of the Korean Physical Society 59 6 (2011) 3494-3498.

Country/Organization

Korea

Type

International Journal

Year

2012

Description

Photochemical Fate of Beta-blockers in NOM Enriched Waters, Sci. Total Environ. 426 (2012) 289-295.

Country/Organization

USA

Type

Ph.D. thesis

Year

2015

Description

Renáta Homlok, 2015, Relation between chemical structure and degradability in advanced oxidation processes

Country/Organization

Hungary

Type

Ph.D. thesis

Year

2015

Description

Micaela Saracino, 2015, Advanced oxidation processes for water remediation, Department of Industrial Chemistry, University of Bologna.

Country/Organization

Italy

Type

Journal publication

Year

2016

Description

Environmental Science and Pollution Research (in press).

Country/Organization

Brazil

Type

Journal publication

Year

2016

Description

Radiat. Phys. Chem. (accepted).

Country/Organization

Hungary

Type

Ph.D. thesis

Year

2015

Description

A-S C. HIEKE, 2015, Investigating the inactivation, physiological characteristics and transcriptomic responses of bacteria exposed to ionizing radiation,

Country/Organization

USA

Type

Journal publication

Year

2016

Description

Int. J. Mol. Sci. (accepted)

Country/Organization

Hungary

Type

Journal publication

Year

2012

Description

Journal of Hazardous Materials (2012).

Country/Organization

Korea, Republic of

Type

Ph.D. thesis

Year

2016

Description

Gyuri Sagi, High-energy ionizing radiation induce decomposition of sulphonamide type antibiotics (under preparation)

Country/Organization

Hungary

Type

Journal Publication

Year

2011

Description

Electron Beam Technology in Korean Industries, Journal of the Korean Physical Society 59 2 (2011) 542-545.

Country/Organization

Korea

Type

Journal publication

Year

2013

Description

Radiation Physics and Chemistry 87 (2013) 82–87.

Country/Organization

Hungary

Type

Journal Publication

Year

2011

Description

Pretreatment of paper mill effluent by a combined process of coagulation and ionizing irradiation, Environmental Science.32 6 (2011) 1638-1643. (in Chinese)

Country/Organization

China

Type

Journal publication

Year

2015

Description

Journal of Industrial Radiation Association 102 (2015) 583–587

Country/Organization

Korea, Republic of

Type

M.Sc. Thesis

Year

2015

Description

Flavio Tominaga, Voltaren in water and wastewater toxic effects when treated by electron beam irradiation, Universidade de São Paulo. (in progress)

Country/Organization

Brazil

Type

Journal publication

Year

2014

Description

Acta Scientiae Circumstantiae, 34 (2014) 60–66. (in Chinese)

Country/Organization

China

Type

International Journal

Year

2012

Description

Comparison of different chlorophenols degradation in aqueous solutions by gamma irradiation under reducing conditions, Radiation Physics and Chemistry. 81 (2012) 1629-1633.

Country/Organization

China

Type

Journal publication

Year

2014

Description

Radiation Physics and Chemistry 97 (2014) 239–245.

Country/Organization

Hungary

Type

Journal publication

Year

2015

Description

Radiochimica Acta. 103 (2) (2015) 137–147.

Country/Organization

Turkey

Type

International Journal

Year

2012

Description

Radiation induced degradation of ketoprofen in dilute aqueous solution, Radiat. Phys. Chem. 81 (2012) 1479-1483.

Country/Organization

Hungary

Type

Journal Publication

Year

2012

Description

Comparison study of wastewater disinfection by UV, Ozone and ionizing irradiation, Journal of Wuhan University of Technology 34 5 (2012) 82-86. (in Chinese)

Country/Organization

China

Type

M.Sc. Thesis

Year

2015

Description

Aline Vieira de Moraes, 2015, Color and toxicity removal of textile effluents treated by electron beam irradiation, Universidade de São Paulo.

Country/Organization

Brazil

Type

M.Sc. Thesis

Year

2014

Description

KIM, S.M., 2014, Comparison of X-ray conversion system, Dept. of Industrial Application, Chungnam University.

Country/Organization

Korea, Republic of

Type

International Journal

Year

2011

Description

Dechlorination process of chlorinated organic compounds by ionizing irradiation in aqueous solutions, J. Radiat. Res. Radiat. Process. 29 6 (2011) 321-325.

Country/Organization

China

Type

Journal publication

Year

2016

Description

Radiat. Phys. Chem. (accepted).

Country/Organization

Hungary

Type

Ph.D. thesis

Year

2015

Description

Noha Degheidy, 2015, Radiation Synthesis of Polyaniline Based Compounds and Their Potential Applications Faculty of Science, Ain Shams University

Country/Organization

Egypt

Type

Journal publication

Year

2014

Description

. Radiat. Phys. Chem. 102 (2014) 72–78.

Country/Organization

Hungary

Type

Journal publication

Year

2013

Description

Chemosphere 92 1579 (2013)

Country/Organization

Hungary

Type

Journal Publication

Year

2011

Description

Application of electron accelerator for the treatment of wastewater from textile dying industries, Journal of the Korean Physical Society 59 6 (2011) 3489-3493.

Country/Organization

Korea

Type

Journal Publication

Year

2011

Description

Industrial Applications of e-beam accelerators in Korea, Journal of the Korean Physical Society 60 2 (2012).

Country/Organization

Korea

Type

M.Sc. Thesis

Year

2015

Description

Nathalia Boiani, Toxicity effects of propanolol in water and wastewater treated by electron beam irradiation, Universidade de São Paulo. (in progress)

Country/Organization

Brazil

Type

Ph. D. Thesis

Year

2012

Description

Application of Ionizing Radiation to Persistent Organic Pollutants Decomposition, PhD thesis on Technological Chemistry, Supervisor: Leal, J.P., (IST/ITN, CQB/FCUL), Botelho, M.L., (IST/ITN). (Defence in December 2012)

Country/Organization

Portugal

Type

Journal Publication

Year

2011

Description

The advanced treatment of secondary biological paper mill effluent by ionizing irradiation, Acta Scientiae Circumstantiae. 31 10 (2011) 2169-2173. (in Chinese)

Country/Organization

China

Type

International Journal

Year

2012

Description

Radiolysis of paracetamol in dilute aqueous solution, Radiat. Phys. Chem. 81 (2012) 1503-1507.

Country/Organization

Hungary

Type

International Journal

Year

2012

Description

Kinetic model for the radical degradation of trihalonitromethane disinfection byproducts in water, Rad. Phys. Chem. 81 (2012) 1646–1652.

Country/Organization

USA

Type

Ph.D. thesis

Year

2014

Description

Erzsébet Illés, 2014, Application of radiolysis and other AOP to the decomposition of non-steroidal inflammatory drugs

Country/Organization

Hungary

Type

Journal publication

Year

2015

Description

Radiation Physics and Chemistry 110 (2015) 38–41

Country/Organization

USA

Type

Journal publication

Year

2015

Description

Reaction Kinetics, Mechanisms and Catalysis, 116 (2015) 95–103

Country/Organization

Hungary

Type

International Journal

Year

2011

Description

Elimination of diclofenac from wastewater using irradiation technology, Chemosphere 85 (2011) 603-608.

Country/Organization

Hungary

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