Application of Large Sample Neutron Activation Analysis Techniques for Inhomogeneous Bulk Archaeological Samples and Large Objects

Closed for proposals

Project Type

Coordinated Research Project

Project Code

F23027

CRP

1499

Approved Date

1 August 2008

Status

4 - Closed

Start Date

9 September 2008

Expected End Date

9 September 2012

Completed Date

10 January 2014

Participating Countries

Brazil
China
Egypt
Ghana
Greece
India
Japan
Malaysia
Netherlands
Peru
Romania
Russian Federation
Syrian Arab Republic
Thailand
United States of America

Description

Nuclear techniques based on X-ray and neutron probe principles play a very important role in both applied research and practical applications. Non-destructive X-ray fluorescence techniques are often applied for trace element characterisation but this technique provides information of the surface layers but not on the bulk composition of objects. Neutron activation analysis (NAA) is a well established nuclear technique, which is ideally suited to investigate the microstructural or elemental composition and can be applied to studies of a large variety of samples. However, there are limitations due to sample size for application in bulk analysis, in particular for archaeology and cultural art artefacts, findings, forensic materials as well as geological studies. This is due to the lack of verified and validated experimental procedures which are required for NAA implementation in bulk sample studies. The IAEA is initiating concerted efforts to support the planning, harmonisation and implementation of Large Sample Neutron Activation Analysis (LSNAA) techniques, which will enable new areas of applications. The LSNAA is still in the R&D phase; suggested collaborative efforts for further developments and the proposed IAEA Coordinated Research Project (CRP) aim to bring the technique developers and end-users together. The CRP will focus primarily on the application of LSNAA in area of archaeological and geological programmes, however the CRP will also be open for further utilisation in other subjects of industry and research. This work will contribute to the validation and harmonisation of methodology and in particular, provide support for the training of manpower for effective utilisation of the LSNAA.

Objectives

The objective of the project 2.5.2.4 under which the CRP is being proposed was: to demonstrate the role of nuclear techniques, including use of neutron based systems, as confirmatory method to conventional screening/inspection systems in detection of explosives and illicit materials, as well as analytical tools for compositional analysis

Specific objectives

To develop / standardize data acquisition / analysis systems

To harmonise / standardize data collection from facilities with similar kind of instrumentation for further analysis and benchmarking

To identify the needs for development or upgrade of the neutron irradiation facility for uniform irradiation of large samples

To validate and optimize the experimental procedures for LSNAA applications in archaeology and art objects

Impact

Compositional analysis is essential in many fields of science, ranging from environmental studies, geology, to advanced technology, food, nutrition and human health. Large Sample NAA (LSNAA) is the only available method to measure the bulk mass fractions of the elements present in a large sample (up to kilograms in mass) non-destructively. Examples amenable to LSNAA include irregularly shaped archaeological artefacts, excavated rock samples, large samples of assorted ore, finished products such as nuclear reactor components, etc.

Fifteen Member States joined the CRP from 2009 to 2012, ranging from laboratories with proven facilities to newcomers. During the CRP several new facilities have been built, innovative approaches have been developed and it has been demonstrated that trustworthy results can be obtained with LSNAA. The latter has been underpinned by a unique interlaboratory proficiency testing exercise. Replicas of an intact clay pottery art piece were distributed amongst the participants. Details on this exercise are given in this publication. The degree of agreement among the participants was good, reflecting the power of the LSNAA technique and the relative simplicity of implementation. LSNAA can be applied to many matrices that have relevance in archaeology, art pieces, food stuff, ores, and can be extended to many other materials.

The information on LSNAA generated during the CRP was made available to Member States and potential stakeholders of the technique in a TECDOC. LSNAA methodologies and approaches were described, and unique opportunities in developing infrastructure were highlighted with case studies developed during the CRP.

All taken together, the CRP was the essential step to definitely establishing LSNAA as a mature technique, available in research reactors to Member States. This impact was not limited to the duration of the CRP and to the participating laboratories, with continued use and developments after the CRP ended, as the technique took a momentum of its own. The role of the IAEA was essential in kickstarting this process.

Relevance

Several LSNAA facilities have been developed during the CRP and very strong methodological advancements were achieved. As the CRP was concluded in the year 2012, it is already possible to evaluate how its objectives and outputs remain appropriate and worthwhile to the Agency programme and to the stakeholders concerned.

The CRP brought about an increased awareness of the unique capability of the technique to measure chemical elements in large objects. This has resulted in both new applications in existing facilities and in new facilities being established after the CRP ended. Also, further developments of the technique, including utilization of non-research reactor based neutron sources, complementary use of imaging methods, and application to new fields, have occurred since 2012.

In addition, the use of neutron generators and isotopic neutron sources in belt-analysers and flow-analysers (e.g. for oil) for process control in industry continues. Although much less worldwide available, photon activation analysis shares many of the advantages of NAA and PGA for the analysis of large objects. A review of this technique has been published in 2017 referring to examples of the analysis of large samples by photon activation. Stamatelatos demonstrated in 2016 the use of photon activation analysis for multi-element measurements in intact large clumps (ca. 125 g) of metallurgical slag from a copper furnace; these measurements were done for an archaeological research project to gain more insight in the metallurgical techniques applied in the early bronze age.

The TECDOC published in 2018 includes all these new developments, and serves as a reference of interest not only to the NAA experts, research reactor personnel, and those considering implementing this technique, but also to various stakeholders such as industrialists, environmental and legal experts, and administrators. An international network has been established in the frame of this recent CRP that will contribute to future use of LSNAA and in many scientific publications and innovative methodologies.

In conclusion, the CRP remains and will continue to remain relevant to the Agency's programme and to the relevant stakeholders in the Member States, for the foreseeable future.

CRP Publications

Type

Peer-reviewed scientific journal

Year

2013

Description

Zinov’ev, V. G., Martynov, V. V., Loginov, Yu. E., Korotkih, E. M, Shulyak, G. I., Tukavina, T. M., Sushkov, P. A., Absolute Neutron Activation Analysis Technique of a Large Crude Oil Sample, World J. Nucl. Sci. Tech. 3 (2013) 136-142.

Country/Organization

Russian Federation

Type

Peer-reviewed scientific journal

Year

2012

Description

DASARIK, B., ACHARYA, R., LAKSHMANA, D.A.S.N., REDDYA, V.R., A Standard-less Approach of INAA for Grouping Study of Ancient Potteries, J. Radioanal. Nucl. Chem. 294 (2012) 429.

Country/Organization

India

Type

Peer-reviewed scientific journal

Year

2012

Description

VASILOPOULOU, T., TZIKA, F., STAMATELATOS, I.E., Collimated scanning for large sample neutron activation analysis, J. Radioanal. Nucl. Chem. 291 (2012) 479-483.

Country/Organization

Greece

Type

Conference paper

Year

2010

Description

ZINOV’EVV, V.G., MARTYNOVV, V., LOGINOVYU, E., KOROTKIKHE, M., SHULYAKG, I., SUSHKOVP, A., KABINAL, P., TUKAVINAT, M. Neutron activation analysis of large crude oil samples. Collected articles of IX international scientific conference “Fundamental and applied researches, development and application of high technologies in the industry and economy”. V. 4, p. 228-234. 22-23 April 2010. St. Petersburg, Russia.

Country/Organization

Russian Federation

Type

Peer-reviewed scientific journal

Year

2015

Description

VASILOPOULOU, T., STAMATELATOS, I. E., MONTOYA, E. H., BEDREGAL, P. S., TSALAFOUTAS, I., BODE, P., Large sample neutron activation analysis of irregular-shaped pottery artifacts, J. Radioanal. Nucl. Chem. 303 (2015) 853–858.

Country/Organization

Greece, Peru

Type

Peer-reviewed scientific journal

Year

2018

Description

BODE, P., KOSTER-AMMERLAAN, M.J.J., Reference Materials for Large sample Neutron Activation Analysis, Submitted for publication to J. Radioanal. Nucl. Chem.

Country/Organization

The Netherlands

Type

Peer-reviewed scientific journal

Year

2010

Description

ACHARYA, R., SWAIN, K.K., SUDARSHAN, K., TRIPATHI, R., PUJARIP, K., REDDYA, V.R., Large sample NAA work at BARC: Methodology and applications, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 622 (2010) 460.

Country/Organization

India

Type

Peer-reviewed scientific journal

Year

2013

Description

LATIF, S.K.A., OURA, Y., EBIHARA, M., NAKAHARA, H., Non-destructive elemental analysis of large meteorite samples by prompt gamma ray neutron activation analysis with the internal mono-standard method, Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 405 (2013) 8749–8759.

Country/Organization

Japan, Bangladesh

Type

TECDOC

Year

2018

Description

Advances in Neutron Activation Analysis of Large Objects with Emphasis on Archaeological Examples. Results of a Coordinated Research Project

Country/Organization

IAEA

Type

Peer-reviewed scientific journal

Year

2013

Description

ZHU, J., SOLBREKKEN, G., HAO, W., LI, Y., ZHEN, J., ZHEN, T., GLASCOCK, M. D., Neutron activation analysis of bulk samples from Chinese ancient porcelain to provenance research, J. Radioanal. Nucl. Chem. 298 (2013) 237–242.

Country/Organization

China, USA

Type

PhD Thesis

Year

2012

Description

DASARI, K.B., Provenance Studies of Archaeological Artifacts Using Nuclear Analytical Techniques, Institute of Science, GITAM University, Visakhapatnam, India (Guides: N.L. Das, R. Acharya, A.V.R. Reddy), 2012 (Supervisors: R. Acharya and N. Lakshmana Das).

Country/Organization

Institute of Science, GITAM University, India

Type

Peer-reviewed scientific journal

Year

2009

Description

ACHARYA, R., SWAIN, K. K., NEWTON, T. N., TRIPATHI, R., SUDARSHAN, K., PUJARIP, K., REDDY, A. V. R., Large sample analysis of coal and uranium ore using k0-based internal mono standard NAA method, Exploration and Research for Atomic Minerals, 19 (2009) 294.

Country/Organization

India

Type

Peer-reviewed scientific journal

Year

2010

Description

DASARIK, B., ACHARYA, R., SWAINK, K., LAKSHMANA DASN., REDDYA, V.R, Analysis of large and non-standard geometry samples of ancient potteries by internal monostandard NAA using in-situ detection efficiency, J. Radioanal. Nucl. Chem. 286 (2010) 525.

Country/Organization

India

Type

Peer-reviewed scientific journal

Year

2017

Description

BORGES DE SALLES, P.M., DE BARROS CORREIA MENEZES, M.A., SATHLER, M.M., REIS DE MOURA, R., PASSOS RIBEIRO DE CAMPOS, T., Elemental composition of dietary supplements most consumed in Belo Horizonte, Brazil, analysed by k (0)-INAA, J.Radioanal.Nucl. Chem. 312 (2017) 421–431

Country/Organization

Brazil

Type

Peer-reviewed scientific journal

Year

2010

Description

BARBOS., D., PAUNOIU., C., ROTH, C.S. - Determination of a and f parameters at the 14 MW TRIGA Reactor at Pitesti, Romania, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 622 (2010) 425-428.

Country/Organization

Romania

Type

Peer-reviewed scientific journal

Year

2012

Description

Asamoah, M., Gyampo, O., Nyarko, B.J.B, Akaho, E.H.K., The effect of graphite thermal column around the newly designed large irradiation channel of GHARR-1 on neutron flux distribution, Annals of Nuclear Energy 42 (2012) 131–134.

Country/Organization

Ghana

Type

Conference paper

Year

2011

Description

ZINOV’EVV, V.G., SUSHKOVP, A, SHULYAKG,I., TUKAVINA T.M., Instrumental neutron activation analysis of crude oil. Collected articles of XII international scientific conference “Fundamental and applied researches, development and application of high technologies in the industry and economy”. V. 1, p. 271–277. 8-10 December 2011. St. Petersburg, Russia.

Country/Organization

Russian Federation

Type

Peer-reviewed scientific journal

Year

2018

Description

YAGOB, T.I.M., BODE, P., VAN DE WIEL, A., WOLTERBEEK, H.TH., Dietary intake assessment of iron without subsampling of double portion using Large Sample Neutron Activation Analysis, Subm. For publication tin Trace Elem. Medic.

Country/Organization

The Netherlands

Type

Peer-reviewed scientific journal

Year

2011

Description

HADDAD, K.H., ALSOMEL, N., Large sample neutron activation analysis of municipal solid waste using shutdown MNSR photoneutrons, J. Radioanal. Nucl. Chem. 288 (2011) 823–828.

Country/Organization

Syria

Type

Peer-reviewed scientific journal

Year

2010

Description

STAMATELATOS, I.E., TZIKA, F., VASILOPOULOU, T., KOSTER-AMMERLAAN, M.J.J., Large sample neutron activation analysis of a ceramic vase, J. Radioanal. Nucl. Chem. 283 (2010) 735-740.

Country/Organization

Greece, The Netherlands

Type

Peer-reviewed scientific journal

Year

2014

Description

Zinov’ev, V. G., Mitropol’skii, I. A., Loginov, Yu. E., Shulyak, G. I., Tyukavina, T. M., and Sushkov, P. A., Computational methods for neutron-activation analysis of large oil samples, Atomic Energy 116 (2014).

Country/Organization

Russian Federation

Type

Peer-reviewed scientific journal

Year

2012

Description

HADDAD, K.H., ALBYIAT, R., Volume efficiency correction factor determination for gamma spectrometry using Br-82, J.Radioanal.Nucl.Chem. 292 (2012) 29-32

Country/Organization

Syria

Type

Peer-reviewed scientific journal

Year

2015

Description

MENEZES, M.A., JACIMOVIC, R., PEREIRA, C., Spatial distribution of neutron flux in geological larger sample analysis at CDTN/CNEN, Brazil, J. Radioanal. Nucl. Chem. 306 (2015) 611–616.

Country/Organization

Brazil, Slovenia

Type

PhD Thesis

Year

2012

Description

VASILOPOULOU, T., Development of nuclear techniques for elemental analysis of large volume samples. National Technical University of Athens, School of Applied Mathematical and Physical Sciences, Department of Physics, 2012 (Supervisors: E.N. Gazis, T. Alexopoulos, I.E. Stamatelatos).

Country/Organization

Greece, National Technical University of Athens

Type

Peer-reviewed scientific journal

Year

2012

Description

BEDREGAL, P.S., MENDOZA, P.A., COHEN, I.M., BALTUANO, O.R., MONTOYA, E.H., Neutron activation analysis of archaeological artifacts using the conventional relative method: a realistic approach for analysis of large samples. J. Radioanal. Nucl. Chem. 291 (2012) 37–42.

Country/Organization

Peru

Type

Peer-reviewed scientific journal

Year

2012

Description

ROTH, C, S., BARBOS, D., GUGIU, D., DATCU, A., DOBREA, D., GLIGOR, M., PREDA, M., MWEETWA, M., Irradiation and Measurement Devices and Methods Development for LSNAA Applications at the TRIGA-ACPR Core, J. Radioanal. Nucl. Chem. 291 (2012) 461–466.

Country/Organization

Romania

Type

Peer-reviewed scientific journal

Year

2011

Description

NYARKO B. J. B., ASAMOAH, M., GYAMPO, O., AKAHOE, H.K., YAMOAH, S., MENSIMAH, E., ABREFAH, R. G., Design of a Large Irradiation Channel at MNSR Facility in Ghana, J. Annals Nucl. Energy 38 (2011) 431–437.

Country/Organization

Ghana

Type

Peer-reviewed scientific journal

Year

2011

Description

VASILOPOULOU, T., TZIKA, F., KOSTER-AMMERLAAN, M.J.J., STAMATELATOS, I.E., Large sample neutron activation analysis of a reference inhomogeneous sample, J. Radioanal. Nucl. Chem. 289 (2011) 731–737.

Country/Organization

Greece, The Netherlands

Type

Peer-reviewed scientific journal

Year

2014

Description

ACHARYA, R., SWAIN, K.K., PUJARI, P.K., DASARI, K.B., SHINDE, A.D., REDDY, A.V.R., Application of k0-based internal monostandard NAA for large sample analysis of clay pottery: As a part of inter comparison exercise, J. Radioanal. Nucl. Chem. 300 (2014) 517-521.

Country/Organization

India

Type

Conference paper

Year

2012

Description

ZINOV’EV, V.G., LOGINOV, YU.E., SHULYAK, G.I, TUKAVINA T.M. Monte-Carlo technique for calculation of thermal and epithermal neutron flux density distribution in the large cylindrical samples by using ENDF files. Collected articles of XII international scientific conference “Fundamental and applied researches, development and application of high technologies in the industry and economy”. V. 2, p. 146-154. 4-5 December 2012. St. Petersburg, Russia.

Country/Organization

Russian Federation

Type

Peer-reviewed scientific journal

Year

2015

Description

ELIAS, C., KOSTER AMMERLAAN, A., DE NADAI FERNANDES, E. A, BODE, P., BACCHII M. A., Instrumental neutron activation analysis of kilogram-sized samples of dog food, J. Radioanal. Nucl. Chem. 306 (2015) 617–621.

Country/Organization

The Netherlands

Type

Peer-reviewed scientific journal

Year

2014

Description

MENEZES, M.A., JACIMOVIC, R., Implementation of a methodology to analyse cylindrical 5-g sample by neutron activation technique, k0 method, at CDTN/CNEN, Belo Horizonte, Brazil, J. Radioanal. Nucl. Chem. 300 (2014) 523-531.

Country/Organization

Brazil, Slovenia

Type

Peer-reviewed scientific journal

Year

2009

Description

BEDREGAL, P. S., MENDOZA, P. A., UBILLUS, M. S., COHEN, I. M., MONTOYA, E. H., The k0 and relative INAA methods to determine elements in entire archaeological pottery objects, J. Radioanal. Nucl. Chem. 300 (2014) 673-678.

Country/Organization

Peru

Type

Peer-reviewed scientific journal

Year

2012

Description

SWAIN, K., AJITH, N., ACHARYA, R., VERMA, R., REDDYA, V. R, Large Sample Neutron Activation Analysis of Dross for Gold and Silver, Radioanal. Nucl. Chem. 294 (2012) 319.

Country/Organization

India

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