Development and Strengthening of Radio-Analytical and Complementary Techniques to Control Residues of Veterinary Drugs and Related Chemicals in Aquaculture Products

Closed for proposals

Project Type

Coordinated Research Project

Project Code

D52039

CRP

2084

Approved Date

28 October 2014

Status

Closed

Start Date

23 March 2015

Expected End Date

1 April 2021

Completed Date

14 April 2022

Participating Countries

Argentina
Belgium
Brazil
Cameroon
Canada
China
Ecuador
India
Lebanon
Netherlands
Nigeria
Singapore
South Africa
Türkiye
Uganda

Description

Aquaculture practice (fish and seafood farming) is becoming more widespread for the inexpensive and intensive production of protein rich foods. In the period 2000–2012, intensive aquaculture production increased at an average annual rate of 6.2% from 32.4 million to 66.6 million tons1. Inevitably, agrochemical inputs such as veterinary pharmaceuticals and related substances are required to control aquaculture-related diseases and improve yields. Residues of such inputs, plus unintended natural toxins (in aquaculture products and feeds) and contaminants at production sites, pose public and environmental health risks and must be addressed. This calls for robust national regulatory frameworks underpinned by sound laboratories, to among others safeguard consumers and aquaculture production, and enhance international trade in aquaculture products. Research is needed now on analytical methods that will strengthen laboratory performance and nuclear and isotopic techniques can play an important role. Research is also required to better understand the contamination of aquaculture production sites, with potential public and environmental health implications. Through the above mentioned research, this CRP aims at strengthening Member State analytical laboratories and national chemical residue monitoring programs thus contributing to the improvement of food safety, better aquaculture production and management practices as well as enhancement of trade in aquaculture products. New analytical methods will be developed (including improved environmentally friendly sample preparation techniques) validated and transferred amongst Member States laboratories. The CRP will contribute to the knowledge-base on contamination of aquaculture production systems. 

Objectives

To enhance national control programs for residues of veterinary pharmaceuticals and related chemicals in aquaculture products and feeds (including water) as well as aquaculture production sites

Specific objectives

1. To improve laboratory capabilities to collect reliable data on the safety of aquaculture products and aquaculture itself

2. To assess the cost-effectiveness of new sample preparation techniques and optimum use of radio-analytical tools to ensure aquaculture product and environmental safety

3. To assess ways to strengthen laboratory QA/QC to ensure food and environmental safety

4. To enhance the understanding of potential effects of aquaculture inputs and contamination/pollution of aquaculture production systems

Impact

The CRP has met intended goals with significant benefit to Member States. A range (37) of nuclear, isotopic and complementary analytical methods including many that are easy-to-use, relative quick and broad spectrum were developed, validated or adapted and applied. These are transferable in the form of standard operating procedures (SOPs) already prepared. Some of this work has also been published as 23 papers or scientific reports and 5 conference proceedings. The methods have contributed to improved analytical technology for the testing and monitoring of residues and contaminants in aquaculture products (local/exports and imports) and production sites. CRP work also contributed to enhanced laboratory competences including ISO 17025 accreditation of the CSIs in Nigeria, South Africa and Uganda for example. It also enhanced human resources development such as the 17 PhD, MSc and Post-Doctoral fellows that benefited and at least 216 scientists/students trained, through TCPs. Six expert missions were also implemented. Some research findings have contributed to the development of national and regional TCPs.
Singapore – Established methods are used in the national residue control program to effectively assist aquaculture/seafood import regulation and local farm surveillance. A wide range of residues and contaminants (including those unanticipated and prohibited) were detected, resulting in review of the country’s residue control programme to monitor the additional chemical contaminants in aquaculture products. As a net importer, it is important to expand the scope of hazards to monitor. Isotopic techniques were used to determine the presence of chemical used in commercial cleaning products (e.g. benzalkonium chloride) in catfish fillet and smoked salmon.
Brazil (Microbioticos and CENA) – A spectrometric method was established for analysis of residues especially of forbidden substances such as Chloramphenicol in fish and shrimps. This is useful for the Brazilian National Residue and Contaminant Monitoring programme where the CSI Microbioticos is a partner. This is needed to facilitate export of animal products. A radio immuno assay technique has also been established. Research was successfully conducted on the uptake and depletion of a C-14 labelled drug (sulfonamide) in rainbow trout fish. This information is important in appreciating the metabolism of the drug and provides a foundation for additional research on depletion of drugs in food animals. Such information is useful in the process of MRL setting. Assessment of C-14 sulfadiazine on Danio rerio (zebrafish) was also done to evaluate the bioconcentration and depuration of sulfadiazine which is also important for MRL setting and risk assessment.
South Africa – Broad spectrum analytical methods were established, accredited and being used to implement a national residue monitoring programme for antimicrobials residues (and related hazards) in aquaculture products and their production sites. Aquaculture contributes ~ R0.7 billion or 0.2% to the South African GDP. CSI investigated the potential consumer risk of exposure to per- and polyfluoro-alkyl substances (PFAS) in aquaculture products. This could lead to extensive risk assessment and subsequent inclusion of per- and polyfluoro-alkyl substances (PFAS) in the national residue monitoring. An analytical method was also established for mycotoxins in feed and aquaculture/fish samples in South Africa
China – New analytical methods were developed/validated and applied to the testing of veterinary drugs and shellfish toxins in fish/aquaculture products in South China. Methods have been applied to a residue surveillance scheme not only in local Shenzhen city but also in Guangdong province. The research generated information to help confirm that the presence of certain forbidden drugs/substances in food production, is not necessarily due to intentional use, rather due to natural occurrence. For example, a research contract showed that Semicarbazide (SEM, a nitrofuran metabolite) is not a conclusive marker for illegal use of the forbidden antimicrobial nitrofuran because SEM was found to be naturally existing in shellfish. Established occurrence-species profile for SEM in shellfish may help in food safety regulatory decisions.
Cameroon – New radio receptor assay methods established under the project have been used for cost-effective determination of 5 major groups of veterinary drug residues in different fish following primary and secondary validation. Information has been gathered (in aquaculture in Cameroon) on: (a) the practices as well as the types of antimicrobials commonly used by fish farmers; (b) The contamination level of aquaculture products and sites (mud and water) by veterinary drug residues, mycotoxins and microbial contaminants. Findings suggest the need of a regular monitoring of antimicrobials residues not only in fish but also in its direct environment as well. Aflatoxins were found in fish feeds, muds collected from the farming ponds and in catfish. These suggest that attention should be paid to the quality of ingredients used for fish-feed.
Argentina – Analytical techniques using a range of stable isotopes, were established to measure presence of pharmaceuticals in fish, water and sediments. Local and imported fish including farmed salmon were also investigated for presence of antimicrobials. Research findings also contributed knowledge and better understanding of chemical contamination/residue levels in water and related matrices and potential implication to aquaculture production in general. Stable isotope-based methods were used to determine the presence of a wide range of human and veterinary pharmaceuticals in fish and water, as an indication of human/anthropogenic exposure. Bioaccumulation and bioconcentration of certain drugs used in human medicine such as carbamazepine, in fish for human consumption, under field and controlled laboratory experiments, has been demonstrated.
Ecuador – Broad spectrum antimicrobial analytical techniques were developed, validated and applied by the CSI to ensure safety of aquaculture products consumed locally and for export. Exporters utilize the services offered to certify shrimp for the market.
Uganda – Established radio receptor assay techniques used for the detection of 5 major groups of antimicrobial residues in 7 aquaculture fish. Complementary techniques were also developed for quantification of drug residues in fish and other samples; metals in fish and mycotoxins in feed useful for fish production. All are used to support testing programmes in the country.
Nigeria – Radio receptor assay techniques for the analysis of antimicrobials in aquaculture/seafood products were established at the National Agency for Food and Drug Administration and Control and successfully used in interlaboratory studies leading to accreditation. The CSI laboratory launched the analysis of veterinary drug residues in aquaculture/seafood products from the local markets, imports and exports. Analysis of other contaminants e.g. toxic metals in fish can also be conducted.

Relevance

The CRP findings have contributed to Member States’ efforts to safeguard consumers of aquaculture products and facilitate trade. Aquaculture is fast growing as an important source of protein-rich foods and livelihood. Competent laboratories, using methods such as those produced in the CRP, can boost the sector. This CRP contributed to strengthening Member State analytical laboratories and national chemical residue monitoring programmes in general, and to laboratory accreditation and capacity building under TCPs. As a result of this research, a wide range of chemical and microbiological hazards can be analyzed in aquaculture products, inputs (e.g. feed and water) as well as production settings.

CRP Publications

Type

Peer review

Year

2016

Publication URL

https://doi.org/10.1080/03601234.2016.1181917

Description

MONTEIRO, S.H., FRANCISCO, J.G., MOURA-ANDRADE, G.C.R., BOTELHO, R.G., FIGUEIREDO, L.A., TORNISIELO, V.L., 2016. Study of spatial and temporal distribution of antimicrobials in water and sediments from cage fish farms by on-line SPE-LC-MS/MS. Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part B., v. 51, p. 634-643

Country/Organization

Brazil

Type

Peer review

Year

2021

Publication URL

http://dx.doi.org/10.17265/2162-5263/2021.01.003

Description

TAKADONG TSAFACK, J.J., TCHUENCHIEU, A., HIPPOLYTE, M., BAOMOG, A., ADJELE, J., MEDJO, E., DJUIKOO, I., NDAKOH, B., MATCHAWE, C., SASANYA, J., MEDOUA, G., Microbial Assessment and Antibiotic Susceptibility Profile of Bacterial Fish Isolates in an Aquaculture Production Site in Mefou Afamba Division of Cameroon. J. Environ. Sci. Engin. B. 10 (2021) 20-30

Country/Organization

Cameroon

Type

Conferences proceedings

Year

2018

Description

Vilca, F.Z., Galarza, N.C., Cuba, WAZ., Palma, E.T., Donaires, T., Luiz Tornisielo, V.L. Occurrence of antibiotics of veterinary use in water of the Lake Titicaca: Its Environmental Implication and Human Health; ICFA 2018: 20th International conference on fisheries and aquaculture. World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology International Journal of Animal and Veterinary Sciences Vol:12, No:6, 2018.

Country/Organization

Brazil

Type

Conference proceedings

Year

2016

Description

Rodriguez-Mozaz, S., Huerta, B., Alvarez, D., Valdés, M.E., Bistoni, M.A., Moreno, R., León, V., Wunderlin, D.A., Marques, A., Barceló, D. 2016. Occurrence of pharmaceuticals in freshwater biota in field studies. VI Congreso SETAC-Argentina, Córdoba, 11 al 14 de Octubre de 2016.

Country/Organization

Argentina

Type

Peer review

Year

2021

Description

HE, M.Z., QIN, X.Y., LIU, G.H., YANG, S.Y., LIU, H.H., YUAN, G.X., Simultaneous Detection Of 10 Lipophilic Shellfish Toxins In Shellfish By High Performance Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry, Chin. J. Health Lab. Tec, 314 (2021) 397-406

Country/Organization

China PR

Type

Peer review

Year

2021

Publication URL

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.149516.

Description

CARRIZO, J. Z., GRIBOFF, J., BONANSEA, R. I., NIMPTSCH, J., VALDÉS, M. E., WUNDERLIN, D. A., AMÉ, M. V., Different antibiotic profiles in wild and farmed Chilean salmonids. Which is the main source for antibiotic in fish?, Sci. Total Environ. 800 (2021) 149516.

Country/Organization

Argentina

Type

Peer review

Year

2016

Publication URL

http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/03601234.2016.1208457

Description

Relationship between antibiotic residues and occurrence of resistant bacteria in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) cultured in cage-farm; Monteiro S.H., Garcia F., Gozi K.G., Romera D.M., Francisco J.G., Moura-Andrade G.C.R., Tornisielo V. L. 2016; Journal of Environmental Science and Health, Part B, 51:12, 817-823.

Country/Organization

Brazil

Type

Peer review; conference proceedings

Year

2016

Publication URL

https://setacargentina.setac.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/10/Libro-de-Res%C3%BAme…

Description

Occurrence of pharmaceuticals in freshwater biota in field studies. ' Rodriguez-Mozaz, S., Huerta, B., Alvarez, D., Valdés, M.E., Bistoni, M.A., Moreno, R., León, V., Wunderlin, D.A., Marques, A., Barceló, D. 2016.VI Congreso SETAC-Argentina, Córdoba, 11 al 14 de Octubre de 2016.

Country/Organization

Argentina

Type

Peer review

Year

2015

Publication URL

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aquaculture.2015.07.002

Description

MONTEIRO, S.H., FRANCISCO, J.G., CAMPION, T.F., PIMPINATO, R.F., MOURA ANDRADE, G.C.R; GARCIA, F; TORNISIELO, V.L., 2015. Multi-residue antimicrobial determination in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis Niloticus) cage farming by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Aquaculture, v. 477, p. 37-43.

Country/Organization

Brazil

Type

Peer review

Year

2016

Publication URL

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2016.03.045

Description

VALDES, M.E., HUERTA, B., WUNDERLIN, D.A., BISTONI, M.A., BARCELÓ, D., RODRIGUEZ-MOZAZ, S., 2016. Bioaccumulation and bioconcentration of carbamazepine and other pharmaceuticals in fish under field and controlled laboratory experiments. Evidences of carbamazepine metabolization by fish. Sci. Total Environ. 557–558, 58–67

Country/Organization

Argentina

Type

Peer review

Year

2020

Description

MUKOTA, A.K., GONDAM, M.F.K., TSAFACK, J.J.T., SASANYA, J., REYBROECK, W., NTALE, M., NYANZI, S.A., TEBANDEKE, E. 2020. Primary validation of Charm II tests for the detection of antimicrobial residues in a range of aquaculture fish. BMC Chemistry 14, 32.

Country/Organization

Uganda

Type

Peer review

Year

2021

Publication URL

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jglr.2021.04.012

Description

VILCA, F. Z, GALARZA, N. C., TEJEDO, J. R., CUBA, W.A.Z., QUIROZ, C.N.C., AND LUIZ TORNISIELO, V. L. Occurrence of residues of veterinary antibiotics in water, sediment and trout tissue (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in the southern area of Lake Titicaca, Peru. J. Great Lakes Res. 47 4 (2021).

Country/Organization

Brazil

Type

Peer review - in preparation

Year

2017/18

Description

Validation of a radio receptor assay screening technique for detection of antimicrobial residues in aquaculture fish

Country/Organization

Uganda, Cameroon, Belgium

Type

Conference proceedings

Year

2018

Description

Tsafack et al. 2018. Assessment of some animal farming practices and Analysis of veterinary drug residues using CHARM II Test. Africa Food Safety Workshop, 4-8 June, Pretoria, South Africa

Country/Organization

Cameroon

Type

Peer review

Year

2020

Publication URL

https://doi.org/10.1155/2020/2506812

Description

TAKADONG, J. J. T., MOUAFO, H. T., MANET, L., BAOMOG, A. M. B., ADJELE, J. J. B., MEDJO, E. K., MEDOUA, G. N. 2020. Assessment of the Presence of Total Aflatoxins and Aflatoxin B1 in Fish Farmed in Two Cameroonian Localities. Int. J. Food Sci, 4 (2020) 2506812, 1-6.

Country/Organization

Cameroon

Type

Peer review

Year

2019

Description

YANG, P., LIU, G., CHEN, L., ZHU, Z., LIU, H., YUAN, G., Determination of 5 nitrofuran metabolites in shellfish products by isotope dilution liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, 2019, Journal of Food Safety and Quality, 10 (1), 195-203

Country/Organization

China PR

Type

Peer review

Year

2021

Description

HE, M-Z.,YUAN, G-X., QIN, X-Y., LIU, H-H., JIANG, J., YANG, S-Y., LIU, G-H., Simultaneous detection of 13 paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins in shellfish by ultra-performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry, J. Food Saf. Qual. 12 9 (2021):3465–3475.

Country/Organization

China PR

Type

Peer review

Year

2020

Publication URL

https://doi.org/10.1080/19440049.2019.1705399

Description

ABAFE, O.A., GATYENI, P., MATIKA, L. 2020. A multi-class multi-residue method for the analysis of polyether ionophores, tetracyclines and sulfonamides in multi-matrices of animal and aquaculture fish tissues by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry, Food Additives & Contaminants: Part A, 37:3, 438-450

Country/Organization

South Africa

Type

Peer review

Year

2018

Publication URL

https://doi.org/10.1007/s10967-018-6058-z

Description

DA SILVEIRA, A.T., MARANHO, L.A., TORRES, N.H. ET AL., Assessment of 14C-sulfadiazine on Danio rerio (zebrafish). J Radioanal Nucl Chem 318, 1001–1008 (2018).

Country/Organization

Brazil

Type

Peer review

Year

2015

Publication URL

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0044848615300855?via%3Dihub

Description

Multi-residue antimicrobial determination in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis Niloticus) cage farming by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Monteiro, S.H., Francisco, J.G., Campion, T.F., Pimpinato, R.F., Moura Andrade, G.C.R; Garcia, F; Tornisielo, V.L. 2015. Aquaculture, v. 477, p. 37-43.

Country/Organization

Brazil

Type

Conference proceedings

Year

2018

Description

Sasanya, J., and Cannavan, A. (2016). Development and Strengthening of Radio-Analytical and Complementary Techniques to Control Residues of Veterinary Drugs and Related Chemicals in Aquaculture Products. Proceedings of the EuroResidue VIII Conference on Residues of Veterinary Drugs in Food, Egmond aan Zee, The Netherlands, 23–25 May 2016, 776-779

Country/Organization

IAEA

Type

Peer review

Year

20202

Publication URL

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfca.2020.103540.

Description

YUAN, G., ZHU, Z., YANG, P., LU, S., LIU, H., LIU, W., LIU, G. 2020. Simultaneous determination of eight nitrofuran residues in shellfish and fish using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry, Journal of Food Composition and Analysis, Volume 92, 103540,

Country/Organization

China PR

Type

Peer review

Year

2016

Publication URL

https://doi.org/10.1080/03601234.2016.1208457

Description

MONTEIRO S.H., GARCIA F., GOZI K.G., ROMERA D.M., FRANCISCO J.G., MOURA-ANDRADE G.C.R., TORNISIELO V. L., 2016. Relationship between antibiotic residues and occurrence of resistant bacteria in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) cultured in cage-farm. Journal of Environmental Science and Health, Part B, 51:12, 817-823.

Country/Organization

Brazil

Type

Conferences proceedings

Year

2018

Description

P. SHEN, L. HUANG, G. TEO, L. NEO, P. CHUA, M. TAN, H. PHANG and P. CHIEW. Singapore Experience on Multi-Residue Approaches for detection of veterinary drugs and hormones in meat products. Conference Proceedings; The 8th International Symposium on Hormone and Veterinary Drug Residue Analysis, May 2018, Ghent, Belgium.

Country/Organization

Singapore

Type

Peer review

Year

2016

Publication URL

http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/03601234.2016.1181917

Description

Study of spatial and temporal distribution of antimicrobials in water and sediments from cage fish farms by on-line SPE-LC-MS/MS. Monteiro, S.H., Francisco, J.G., Moura-Andrade, G.C.R., Botelho, R.G., Figueiredo, L.A., Tornisielo, V.L. 2016. ;Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part B., v. 51, p. 634-643.

Country/Organization

Brazil

Type

Peer review; conference proceedings

Year

2016

Description

Development and Strengthening of Radio-Analytical and Complementary Techniques to Control Residues of Veterinary Drugs and Related Chemicals in Aquaculture Products. Sasanya, J., and Cannavan, A. (2016). Proceedings of the EuroResidue VIII Conference on Residues of Veterinary Drugs in Food, Egmond aan Zee, The Netherlands, 23–25 May 2016, 776-779.

Country/Organization

Austria

Type

Peer review

Year

2015

Description

BOTELHO, R.G., MONTEIRO, S.H., TORNISIELO, V.L. Veterinary antibiotics in the environment. In: Marcelo L. Larramendy and Sonia. Soloneski. (Org.). Emerging pollutants in the environment - Current and further implications. Rijeka, Croatia: InTech, 2015, v., p. 105-146

Country/Organization

Brazil

Type

Peer review

Year

2020

Publication URL

https://doi.org/10.1007/s10967-020-07026-7;

Description

VILCA, F.Z., VILCA, O.M.L., SILVEIRA, R.F. ET AL., Uptake and depletion of the antibiotic sulfadiazine 14C in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). J Radioanal Nucl Chem 323, 1033–1039 (2020).

Country/Organization

Brazil

Type

Peer review

Year

2016

Description

From water to edible fish. Transfer of metals and metalloids in the San Roque Reservoir (Córdoba, Argentina). Implications associated with fish consumption; 2. Monferrán, M.V., Garnero, P., Bistoni, A.D.M., Anbar, A.A., Gordon, G.W., Wunderlin, D.A; Ecological Indicators, 63, pp. 48-60

Country/Organization

Argentina

Type

Peer review

Year

2020

Publication URL

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2020.127380

Description

GRIBOFF, J., CARRIZO, J.C., BONANSEA, R.I., VALDÉS, M.E., WUNDERLIN, D.A., AMÉ, M.V. 2020. Multiantibiotic Residues in Commercial Fish From Argentina. The Presence of Mixtures of Antibiotics in Edible Fish, a Challenge to Health Risk Assessment. Food Chemistry 332, 127380

Country/Organization

Argentina

Type

Peer review

Year

2018

Publication URL

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejar.2018.06.006

Description

NTSAMA, ISB., TAMBE, BA., TSAFACK TAKADONG, JJ., NAMA, GM., KANSCI, G. 2018. Characteristics of fish farming practices and agrochemicals usage therein in four regions of Cameroon, The Egyptian Journal of Aquatic Research, Volume 44, Issue 2, 2018, Pages 145-153

Country/Organization

Cameroon

Type

Peer review

Year

2016

Publication URL

https://ac.els-cdn.com/S0048969716304715/1-s2.0-S0048969716304715-main.pdf?_tid=…

Description

Bioaccumulation and bioconcentration of carbamazepine and other pharmaceuticals in fish under field and controlled laboratory experiments. Evidences of carbamazepine metabolization by fish. Valdés, M.E., Huerta, B., Wunderlin, D.A., Bistoni, M.A., Barceló, D., Rodriguez-Mozaz, S., 2016. Sci. Total Environ. 557–558, 58–67.

Country/Organization

Argentina

Type

Peer review

Year

2021

Publication URL

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2021.130985.

Description

BAFE, O. A., MACHEKA, L. R., ABAFE, O. T., CHOKWE, T. B., Concentrations and human exposure assessment of per and polyfluoroalkyl substances in farmed marine shellfish in South Africa. Chemosphere. 281 (2021) 130985,

Country/Organization

South Africa

Type

Peer review

Year

2016

Publication URL

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolind.2015.11.048

Description

MONFERRÁN, M.V., GARNERO, P., BISTONI, A.D.M., ANBAR, A.A., GORDON, G.W., WUNDERLIN, D.A., 2016. From water to edible fish. Transfer of metals and metalloids in the San Roque Reservoir (Córdoba, Argentina). Implications associated with fish consumption. Ecological Indicators, 63, pp. 48-60.

Country/Organization

Brazil

Type

Peer review

Year

2020

Publication URL

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolind.2019.105743

Description

GRIBOFF, J., WUNDERLIN, D.A., HORACEK, M., AMÉ, MV., MONFERRÁN, MV., 2020. d15N as an indicator of freshwater systems suitable for edible fish production, Ecological Indicators, Volume 108, 2020, 105743, ISSN 1470-160X

Country/Organization

Argentina

Type

Peer review

Year

2021

Publication URL

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2020.116133

Description

VALDÉS, M. E.; SANTOS, L.H.M.L.M.; RODRÍGUEZ CASTRO, C.; GIORGI, A.; BARCELÓ, D.; RODRÍGUEZ-MOZAZ, S; AMÉ, M.V. Distribution of antibiotics in water, sediments and biofilm in an urban river (Córdoba, Argentina, LA). 2021. Environmental Pollution, Volume 269, 2021, 116133

Country/Organization

Argentina

Type

Peer review

Year

2015

Description

Emerging pollutants in the environment - Current and further implications. Botelho, R.G., Monteiro, S.H., Tornisielo, V.L. Veterinary antibiotics in the environment. In: Marcelo L. Larramendy and Sonia. Soloneski. (Org.); Rijeka, Croatia: InTech, 2015, v., p. 105-146.

Country/Organization

Brazil

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