Applying GIS and Population Genetics for Managing Livestock Insect Pests

Closed for proposals

Project Type

Coordinated Research Project

Project Code

D42013

CRP

1474

Approved Date

19 November 2007

Status

4 - Closed

Start Date

1 April 2008

Expected End Date

30 April 2013

Completed Date

21 August 2014

Participating Countries

Australia
Brazil
Burkina Faso
Ethiopia
France
Indonesia
Iraq
Israel
Kenya
Mozambique
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
United States of America
Yemen

Description

Cochliomyia hominivorax and Chrysomya bezziana, the New and Old World Screwworm (NWS and OWS) flies cause severe losses to livestock systems, wildlife and even affect humans all over the world. The success story of developing and applying the sterile insect technique (SIT), starting in the mid of last century in North America and then proceeding to Central America, meanwhile generates producer benefits of more than US$ 1 300 million per annum.

Glossina species, or tsetse flies, are responsible for the transmission of human and animal diseases that are at the root of rural poverty in Africa. Annual agricultural losses (in terms of losses to the GDP) due to tsetse transmitted diseases are estimated to rage at US$ 4.5 billion. The success of tsetse eradication on Zanzibar in 1997 raised hopes that the SIT can contribute to the creation of zones in Africa that are free of tsetse flies and the diseases they transmit.
Reported advancement of tsetse populations into previously tsetse-free agricultural areas requires corrective and preventive measures at national and international level. The accidental introduction of NWS into North Africa could fortunately be addressed by an international eradication effort lead by FAO with the support of IAEA and other partners. The fact that increased international trade and trafficking and global changes in climatic conditions open up new risk scenarios for insect pests of medical and veterinary importance to invade new areas must be acknowledged my decision makers and dealt with in a pro-active manner by regulatory authorities, the scientific community and other stakeholders.

Proposals to establish emergency preparedness strategies and to initiate large-scale eradication efforts in difficult tsetse fly and screwworm fly habitats like, for example, Africa and South America, respectively, require identifying infestation routes and developing techniques for gathering and mapping of information on genetic relationships and gene-flow of tsetse, NWS and OWS fly populations, making use of geographic information systems (GIS).

This CRP aims at developing techniques for bringing together GIS and population genetic techniques for a better understanding of the problems and of risk scenarios, to enable better management (i.e. planning, monitoring and decision making) of livestock insect pests, with particular reference to tsetse flies and screwworm flies

Objectives

To improve the planning and monitoring of SIT-based AW-IPM programs against key livestock insect pests using GIS techniques and genetic analysis.

Specific objectives

7.1 To develop ways of linking the available GIS tools and ecological datasets with population genetics datasets.

7.2 To improve the quality and accuracy of available distribution maps and predictive maps of target pest populations, focusing on areas with a significant potential for agricultural development and control.

7.3 To facilitate access to and sharing of geospatial datasets through web-based tools and standardization as well as training.

7.4 To refine the sampling and genetic analyses of target pest populations to identify, characterize and better understand populations susceptible to control because of their isolation or ecological fragility.

7.5 To develop mathematical and computer simulation models to better understand and respond to the movement of genetically defined pest populations, their population dynamics and their ‘ecological networks’ within defined ‘environmental envelopes’.

Impact

Studies conducted under this CRP have provided a much better understanding of the cytogenetics, ecology, morphology, and genetics of these major livestock insect pests. This will also simplify and facilitate more efficient AW-IPM and SIT application against these livestock pest species.

Improved knowledge of population genetics of tsetse flies will lead to a much better ability to understand the size, movement and ability to re-colonise empty or emptied zones. In conjunction with GIS data, this will help to identify target zones and delineate where to deploy target barriers that will prevent reinvasion of previously treated zones.

The study of cuticular hydrocarbons of tsetse combined with wing morphometric data will provide an alternative means of studying Glossina population structure that can aid planning of area-wide control strategies.

A large collaborative network of scientists from different research fields working on tsetse and Old and New World screwworm flies was established within and among regions, which resulted in sharing methodologies, exploring new techniques, training and establishing standard approaches. This will facilitate future cooperation for scientific exchange to solve applied agricultural pest problems.

Further research on OWS flies is under way that will assess the level at which wing morphometrics could contribute to insect pest management operations of the OWS fly as a tool for population analysis.

Research within the CRP has demonstrated the significant potential for agent-based modelling, GIS and NVidia’s CUDA GPU programming for the simulation of an invasion of the OWS into Australia on a national scale.

Relevance

The CRP was essential to address and resolve the issues identified by Member States and confirmed by the external consultants. It further developed GIS tools and mathematical or computer simulation models that enable a better understanding of spatial pest distribution and that allow improving the planning and monitoring of SIT-based AW-IPM programs against key livestock insect pests.

The work under the CRP 'Applying GIS and Population Genetics for Managing Livestock Insect Pests' continues to be very relevant, representing an important contribution to the Agency RB project: 2.1.4.3. 'Strengthening Capacities to use SIT in Area-wide Control of Tsetse and Screwworm populations', and generating technologies that are and will be used under several regional and national tsetse and screwworm fly TC projects.

The results of the CRP are contributing significantly in assisting Member States in achieving sustainable AW-IPM of populations of the target insect pest species, thus contributing to increased agricultural productivity within the livestock sector.

Regarding the OWS fly, an SIT eradication program aimed at populations of this invasive fly would greatly benefit countries in the Middle East and would increase viability and profitability of animal production and lower, or eliminate, the costs of surveys and animal treatments.

CRP Publications

Type

Peer-reviewed scientific journal

Year

2014

Publication URL

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.actatropica.2014.03.021

Description

Applying GIS and high performance agent-based simulation for managing an Old World Screwworm fly invasion of Australia

Country/Organization

Australia/School of Science and Technology, University of New England

Type

Peer-reviewed scientific journal

Year

2014

Publication URL

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.actatropica.2014.03.025

Description

Applying GIS and population genetics for managing livestock insect pests: Case studies of tsetse and screwworm flies

Country/Organization

Austria/International Atomic Energy Agency Programme of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture

Type

Peer-reviewed scientific journal

Year

2014

Publication URL

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.actatropica.2014.02.015

Description

An improved real-time PCR assay for the detection of Old World screwworm flies

Country/Organization

Australia/Queensland Alliance for Agriculture and Food Innovation, The University of Queensland

Type

Peer-reviewed scientific journal

Year

2014

Publication URL

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.actatropica.2014.04.002

Description

Genetic diversity and population structure of the New World screwworm fly from the Amazon region of Brazil

Country/Organization

Brazil/Centro de Biologia Molecular e Engenharia Genetica, Universidade Estadual de Campinas

Type

Peer-reviewed scientific journal

Year

2014

Publication URL

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.actatropica.2014.03.006

Description

Perspectives on why digital ecologies matter: Combining population genetics and ecologically informed agent-based models with GIS for managing dipteran livestock pests

Country/Organization

United States of America/Brigham Young University

Type

Peer-reviewed scientific journal

Year

2014

Description

Population studies of Glossina pallidipes in Ethiopia: emphasis on cuticular hydrocarbons and wing morphometric analysis

Country/Organization

Ethiopia/Addis Ababa University

Type

Peer-reviewed scientific journal

Year

2014

Publication URL

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.actatropica.2014.03.002

Description

Relative performance of surveys for the Old World screwworm fly, Chrysomya bezziana in Iraq, based on fly trapping and myiasis monitoring

Country/Organization

Iraq/Directorate of Agricultural Research, Integrated Pest Control Center, Baghdad

Type

Peer-reviewed scientific journal

Year

2014

Publication URL

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.actatropica.2014.06.001

Description

Environmental and phylogeographical determinants of the distribution of the Old World screwworm fly in Indonesia

Country/Organization

Indonesia/Indonesian Research Centre for Veterinary Science

Type

Peer-reviewed scientific journal

Year

2014

Description

Genetic correlations within and between isolated tsetse populations: What can we learn?

Country/Organization

Burkina Faso/Institut de Recherche pour le Developpement (IRD) and Centre International de Recherche-Developpement sur l'Elevage en zone Subhumide (CIRDES)

Type

Peer-reviewed scientific journal

Year

2014

Publication URL

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.actatropica.2014.04.003

Description

Applying spatial analysis of genetic and environmental data to predict connection corridors to the New World screwworm populations in South America

Country/Organization

Brazil/Universidade de Sao Paulo

Type

Peer-reviewed scientific journal

Year

2014

Publication URL

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.actatropica.2014.07.001

Description

Improved method for screening mitochondrial cytochrome b markers to identify regional populations of the Old World screwworm fly and other myiasis agents

Country/Organization

Indonesia/Indonesian Research Centre for Veterinary Science and Natural History Museum , London, United Kingdom

Type

Peer-reviewed scientific journal

Year

2014

Publication URL

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.actatropica.2014.04.017

Description

Combining cattle and wound-derived synthetic attractants, POC and Bezzilure B, for sampling Chrysomya bezziana in Indonesia

Country/Organization

United Kingdom/ London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine and Indonesian Research Centre for Veterinary Science

Type

Peer-reviewed scientific journal

Year

2014

Publication URL

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.actatropica.2014.03.023

Description

Use of wing morphometrics to identify populations of the Old World screwworm fly, Chrysoma bezziana (Diptera: Calliphoridae): A preliminary study of the utility of museum specimens

Country/Organization

United Kingdom/Natural History Museum, London and Indonesian Research Centre for Veterinary Science, Bogor, Indonesia

Stay in touch

Newsletter