IAEA Nuclear Security: Working to Build a Global Response to a Global Threat

1 July 2013
The possibility that nuclear or other radioactive material could be used for malicious purposes is real.<br><br> 

This calls for a collective commitment to the control of and accountancy for material, as well as to adequate levels of protection in order to prevent criminal or unauthorized access to the material or associated facilities.<br><br> 

Sharing of knowledge and experience, coordination among States and collaboration with other international organizations, initiatives, and industries support an effective international nuclear security framework.<strong>BUILDING</strong> a nuclear security framework, which is suitable for today and sustainable for tomorrow, is a widely held priority of the international community.<strong>UNDERSTANDING the problem.</strong><br><br> 

Terrorists will find and exploit the weakest link in any security system.<br><br> 

Nuclear Security is the prevention and detection of, and response to, theft, sabotage, unauthorized access, illegal transfer or other malicious acts involving nuclear material, other radioactive substances or their associated facilities.<strong>FINDING a solution - Nuclear Security's Three Lines of Defence.</strong><br><br> 
 
Prevent people from getting access to material and from using it with malicious intent.<br><br> 

Detect and interdict illicit trafficking and other illegal activities involving radioactive substances.<br><br> 

Respond to malicious acts or threats in a quick and coordinated way.<strong>The Nuclear Security FRAMEWORK.</strong><br><br> 

By the end of 2012, the <em>Convention on Physical Protection of Nuclear Material</em> has become a widely accepted international instrument with 148 States Parties.<strong>MAKING sure people have the right know-how.</strong><br><br> 

Over 30 different nuclear security training courses are provided to States, with more than 80 events conducted annually.  More than 500 nuclear security training workshops and training courses have been delivered to over 13 800 people from more than 120 States.<strong>HELPING States identify the gaps.</strong><br><br> 

Between 2002-2012, IAEA NUCLEAR SECURITY TEAMS visited 95 relevant sites, nearly 200 sites with other radioactive material and 120 border crossings.<br><br> 

Over 200 visits conducted to more than 350 sites.<strong>REDUCING the stock of vulnerable material.</strong><br><br> 

IAEA inspectors monitor the removal of close to 40 kg HEU from a research reactor in Poland before it is airlifted back to Russia - two bombs worth - another critical step in enhancing the security of fissile material by eliminating stockpiles of HEU.<br><br> 

Over 1850kg of HEU research reactor fuel have been removed.<strong>COLLECTING radioactive material.</strong><br><br> 

Malicious acts with dispersal of radioactivity may occur if radioactive materials are inadequately controlled and protected. <br><br>  
States must protect against this. <br><br> 

Over 6 000 radioactive sources secured in 35 States.<strong>BUILDING better barriers.</strong><br><br> 

Over 75 sites - including waste storage facilities, research institutes and hospitals - received upgrades to the security of radioactive material located on their premises. <br><br> 

Over 110 physical protection upgrades carried out in nuclear facilities in 34 States.<strong>ESTABLISHING effective border control.</strong><br><br> 

Equipping front line officers and building their expertise in radiation detection.  <br><br> 

More than 3300 instruments have been provided to 61 States.<strong>CONFERENCES</strong> and <strong>SEMINARS</strong><br><br> 

Proceedings at international conferences contribute to increased collaboration and a better understanding of nuclear security and its component parts. <br><br> 

12 international conferences organized for over 3000 participants.<strong>PARTNERS in nuclear security.</strong><br><br> 

Increased interest in and commitment to nuclear security is reflected in the work of other international organizations and in the establishment by States of new nuclear security initiatives.<br><br>   

For the IAEA, promoting common principles and goals, as well as collectively carrying out high priority activities, requires close coordination and cooperation with other International Organizations and <br>Non-Governmental Organizations.<br><br> 

17 partners in nuclear security.<strong>COORDINATED RESEARCH PROJECTS (CPRs)</strong> 
promote and facilitate research and development.<br><br> 

61 research institutions from 44 States and the European Union participated in 5 CRPs.<strong>MAJOR PUBLIC EVENTS (MPEs)</strong><br><br> 

Major public events with their many participants and spectators could be a vulnerable target for radiological dispersal devices or improvised nuclear explosive devices.<br><br>   

States must put nuclear security measures in place to ensure that nuclear or radioactive materials do not disrupt events like the Olympics or the World Cup.<strong>ILLICIT Trafficking Database (ITDB)</strong><br><br> 

2 331 incidents have been confirmed to the ITDB since 1995.<br><br> 

120 States participate in the IAEA Illicit Trafficking Database programme.<strong>RESOURCES</strong><br><br> 

So far, States and other organizations have provided generous financial and <br>in-kind resources to the IAEA's Nuclear Security Programme.  <br><br> 

Contributions to the Nuclear Security Fund (NSF) since it was established in 2002, amount to over US $200 million. <br><br> 

But continued support is critical as we work together to build a global response to a global threat.<strong>PROGRAMME IN NUMBERS (2002–2012)</strong><br> 

• Funding received:  
US $200+ million <br>

• Training provided: 
500+ workshops and courses to over 
13 800 individuals from <br>120 States<br>

• Field visits conducted:  
200+ to more than 350 sites<br>

• ITDB incidents confirmed: 2 331 (since 1995) <br>

• Research reactor fuel repatriated: <br>1 850+ kg<br> 

• Radioactive material secured: 
<br>6 000+ sources in more than 35 States <br> 

• Radioactive sources repatriated:  <br>
170+ to supplier States <br> 

• Physical protection upgrades conducted: 
100+ sites in 34 States<br> 

• Detection equipment provided: <br> 
3 500+ instruments to 61 States
Last update: 15 October 2014