25 July 2014: India brings into force the Additional Protocol with the IAEA. Full Story
24–25 March 2014: The 2014 Nuclear Security Summit convenes in The Hague. The two most notable successes were Japan’s decision to ship out 500 kilograms (kg) of weapons-grade highly enriched uranium (HEU) and plutonium to their countries of origin (the United States and the United Kingdom) and an initiative signed by 35 countries to help institutionalize progress going forward. Full Story
26–29 March 2012: The 2012 Nuclear Security Summit convenes in Seoul, focusing on combating nuclear terrorism, protecting nuclear facilities and preventing illicit trafficking. The participants agree on a final document, the Seoul Communiqué, which builds on the objectives and measures set out in the 2010 Washington Communiqué, to identify 11 areas of priority and importance in nuclear security and present specific actions in each area. Full Story
2–3 May 2010: The Eighth Review Conference of the States Parties to the NPT is held in New York. The Conference adopts a Final Declaration with a number of forward-looking Conclusions and Recommendations. However, States parties are unable to reach a consensus on the portion of the document for reviewing the implementation of the Treaty. Conclusions and Recommendations contain a 64-item action plan on nuclear disarmament, non-proliferation and peaceful uses. Full Story
12–13 April 2010: The 2010 Nuclear Security Summit convenes in Washington, D.C. and focuses on how to better safeguard weapons-grade plutonium and uranium. As a result of the summit, the 2010 Washington Communique was produced. This highlighted the need for strong nuclear security measures to deal with the threat of nuclear terrorism. Full Story
15 May 2009: India signs the Additional Protocol with the IAEA.
5 April 2009: The President of the United States, Barack Obama, delivers his ‘Prague Speech’ which reasserts the United States’ commitment to nuclear disarmament, setting the goal of a “world free of nuclear weapons.”
2 February 2009: India signs an India-specific safeguards agreement with the IAEA.
6 January 2009: The United States brings into force the Additional Protocol with the IAEA. Additional Protocol
16 October 2007: Russia brings into force the Additional Protocol with the IAEA.
2–27 May 2005: The Seventh Review Conference of the States Parties to the NPT convened in New York. The Conference was unable to agree on a Final Declaration.
30 April 2004: EURATOM, representing all European Union States, brings into force the Additional Protocol with the IAEA.
10 March 2004: Libya signs the Additional Protocol with the IAEA.
18 December 2003: Iran signs the Additional Protocol with the IAEA.
10 January 2003: The North Korea announces its withdrawal from the NPT.
4 November 2002: Cuba accedes to the NPT as a non-nuclear-weapon State.
13 September 2002: South Africa signs and brings into force the Additional Protocol with the IAEA.
28 March 2002: China brings into force the Additional Protocol with the IAEA.
2 November 2001: The IAEA holds a Special Session on Combating Nuclear Terrorism, addressing, among others, the issue of assistance to States and reinforcing international programmes for nuclear security and safety.
18 June 2001: The Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management enters into force.
24 April — 19 May 2000: The Sixth Review Conference of the States Parties to the NPT is held in New York. The Conference adopted a Final Declaration, which reviews the operation of the Treaty taking into account the decisions and the resolution adopted by the 1995 Review and Extension Conference, and sets out a number of practical steps to be achieved in the future. Furthermore, the Final Declaration also contains undertakings by the States parties on "improving the effectiveness of the strengthened review process of the Treaty."
22 March 2000: Russia signs the Additional Protocol with the IAEA.
31 December 1998: China signs the Additional Protocol with the IAEA.
22 September 1998: EURATOM, representing all European Union States, signs the Additional Protocol with the IAEA.
12 June 1998: The United States signs the Additional Protocol with the IAEA.
16 May 1997: The IAEA Board of Governors approves the Model Additional Protocol (INFCIRC/540), which is aimed at strengthening safeguards measures. This is latterly referred to as the ‘Additional Protocol’.
19–20 April 1996: The Summit on Nuclear Safety and Security is held in Moscow. Full Text
17 April — 12 May 1995: The Review and Extension Conference of the Parties to the NPT convenes. The NPT is indefinitely extended and the Conference’s decisions on ‘Strengthening the review process for the Treaty’, ‘Principles and objectives on nuclear non-proliferation and disarmament’, and a ‘Resolution on the Middle East’ are adopted without a vote.
5 December 1994: Ukraine accedes to the NPT as a non-nuclear-weapon State.
14 February 1994: Kazakhstan accedes to the NPT as a non-nuclear-weapon State.
9 February 1993: Belarus accedes to the NPT as a non-nuclear-weapon State.
2 August 1992: France accedes to the NPT.
9 March 1992: China accedes to the NPT.
10 July 1991: South Africa accedes to the NPT as a non-nuclear-weapon State after terminating its nuclear weapons programme.
20 August — 14 September 1990: The Fourth NPT Review Conference is held in Geneva. The Conference is unable to adopt a Final Declaration.
23 March — 10 April 1987: The UN Conference for the Promotion of International Cooperation in the Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy is held in Geneva, but is unable to reach an agreement on principles for international cooperation that would promote the objectives of the full utilization of nuclear energy for peaceful purposes, and the prevention of the proliferation of nuclear weapons.
27 August —21 September 1985: The Third NPT Review Conference is held in Geneva. The Conference adopts a Final Declaration by consensus.
11 August — 7 September 1980: The Second NPT Review Conference is held in Geneva. The Conference is unable to agree on a Final Declaration.
3 March 1980: The Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material is opened for signature in Vienna and New York, the locations of the IAEA and UN General Assembly. The Convention applies to nuclear material used for peaceful purposes while in international nuclear transport (INFCIRC/274/Rev.1).
5–30 May 1975: The First Review Conference of the Parties to the NPT is held in Geneva. This is the first of the Review Conferences, to be held every 5 years, as stipulated by the treaty. The conference adopts a Final Declaration by consensus which sets the precedent for future Review Conferences to produce documents that detail initiatives to further the application of the Treaty.
5 March 1970: The NPT enters into force with the signatures of the three depositary States, and 40 other State signatures. The IAEA begins to implement safeguards measures in line with Article III of the NPT.
16 September 1968: The IAEA revises its safeguards system with further additional provisions for safeguarded nuclear material in conversion plants and fabrication plants.
1 July 1968: The Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (also known as the Non-Proliferation Treaty, or the NPT) is opened for signature in London, Moscow and Washington, D.C. — as the United Kingdom, the USSR and the United States are designated the depositary Governments.
19 June 1968: The UN Security Council adopts resolution 255 (1968) on security assurances to non-nuclear-weapon States parties to the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. Resolution 255 (1968)
12 June 1968: After further revision — concerning mainly the Preamble and Articles IV and V — the UN General Assembly commends the draft text of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons in UN General Assembly resolution 2373 (XXII). The draft text is considered to address the urgent need to prevent the spread of nuclear weapons and intensify international cooperation in the development of the peaceful applications of atomic energy.
January — March 1968: The Eighteen-Nation Committee on Disarmament examines further revisions of the draft treaty texts submitted by the USSR and the United States, which incorporate some of the suggestions of the non-nuclear-weapon States, and submits another revision to the UN General Assembly at its resumed twenty-second session.
1 January 1968: The Treaty establishing the European Atomic Energy Community (EURATOM) enters into force.
19 December 1967: The UN General Assembly adopts resolution 2346 A (XXII), in which it requests the Eighteen-Nation Committee on Disarmament to present the General Assembly with a full report on the negotiations of a non-proliferation treaty on or before 15 March 1968.
August 1967: The Eighteen-Nation Committee on Disarmament considers two separate, but identical draft texts of a non-proliferation treaty submitted by the USSR and the United States, as well as a number of amendments submitted by other members.
November 1966: The UN General Assembly adopts two resolutions on non-proliferation: resolution 2149 (XXI), by which it appeals to all States, pending conclusion of a nuclear non-proliferation treaty, to renounce actions that might hamper agreement on such a treaty; and resolution 2153 A (XXI), in which it calls upon the Eighteen-Nation Committee on Disarmament to give priority to the question of non-proliferation and also to consider the question of assurances to non-nuclear-weapon States.
19 November 1965: On the initiative of eight non-aligned States, the UN General Assembly adopts resolution 2028 (XX), which contains five principles on which negotiation of a non-proliferation treaty is to be based.
24 September 1965: The USSR submits to the UN General Assembly a draft treaty to prevent the spread of nuclear weapons.
17 August 1965: The United States submits to the Eighteen-Nation Committee on Disarmament a draft treaty to prevent the spread of nuclear weapons.
4 December 1961: On the initiative of Sweden, the UN General Assembly adopts resolution 1664 (XVI), which requests the UN Secretary-General to inquire under what conditions States not possessing nuclear weapons would be willing to undertake not to acquire them. Upon the initiative of Ireland, the UN General Assembly adopts, without a vote, resolution 1665 (XVI), which calls upon the nuclear-weapon States in particular to endeavour to conclude an international agreement on the non-dissemination of nuclear weapons, and upon all States to cooperate for this purpose.
30 March 1961: The IAEA establishes its first safeguards system as detailed in INFCIRC/26.
20 December 1960: On the initiative of Ireland, the UN General Assembly adopts resolution 1576 (XV) which calls upon both nuclear- and non-nuclear-weapon States, pending agreement on the prevention of wider dissemination of nuclear weapons, to refrain, as a temporary and voluntary measure, from acts that would lead to further proliferation.
20 November 1959: On the initiative of Ireland, the United Nations (UN) General Assembly adopts resolution 1380 (XIV) which suggests that the Ten-Nation Disarmament Committee consider the feasibility of an international agreement by which the nuclear-weapon States would not hand over control of those weapons to other States, and non-nuclear-weapon States would not manufacture such weapons.
29 July 1957: The Statute of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), which opened for signature on 26 October 1956, comes into force. The Agency is established to facilitate the peaceful uses of nuclear energy, while ensuring that the assistance the Agency provides will not be used for military purposes.