In the following the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK) is used as an example to clarify the matter. In different countries there are different governmental practices that must be taken into account if applying the ideas. The philosophy of governmental regulatory body (STUK in Finland) is as follows:

Other laws like pressure vessel and radiation protection laws increase the role of the STUK compared to some other western regulatory bodies.

The Nuclear Energy Act defines specific duties of the Inspectorate:

  • Handling of permit applications;
  • Control of conditions of permits and specification of detailed requirements;
  • Set safety requirements;
  • Control of fulfilment of safety requirements;
  • Set conditions for the persons involved in the use of nuclear power and study the fulfilment of the conditions;
  • Give expert assistance to other authorities;
  • Perform necessary research and participate in the international co-operation;
  • Refer to decisions and give statements on the base of control.

STUK publishes the regulatory requirements in the form of regulatory guides called YVL guides. The guide YVL 1.1 "STUK as the regulatory authority for the use of nuclear energy" [16] presents the forms of control and inspections made by the STUK. For a specific inspector the duties are defined in the job description.