A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

M

maintenance:
The organized activity, both administrative and technical, of keeping structures, systems and components in good operating condition, including both preventive and corrective (or repair) aspects.

medical practitioner:
An individual who: (a) has been accredited through appropriate national procedures as a health professional; (b) fulfils the national requirements on training and experience for prescribing procedures involving medical exposure; and (c) is a registrant or a licensee, or a worker who has been designated by a registered or licensed employer for the purpose of prescribing procedures involving medical exposure. [40]

member of the public:
In a general sense, any individual in the population except, for protection and safety purposes, when subject to occupational or medical exposure.  For the purpose of verifying compliance with the annual dose limit for public exposure, the representative individual in the relevant critical group.

migration:
The movement of radionuclides in the environment as a result of natural processes.
Most commonly, movement of radionuclides in association with groundwater flow.

mill tailings:
The residues resulting from processing ore to extract uranium series or thorium series radionuclides, or similar residues from processing ores for other purposes.

minimization, waste:
The process of reducing the amount and activity of radioactive waste to a level as low as reasonably achievable, at all stages from the design of a facility or activity to decommissioning, by reducing waste generation and by means such as recycling and reuse, and treatment, with due consideration for secondary as well as primary waste.

mining and milling:
Mining in a mine that yields ore containing uranium series or thorium series radionuclides either in sufficient amounts or concentrations to warrant exploitation or, when present in conjunction with other substances being mined, in amounts or concentrations that require radiation protection measures to be taken; and processing of radioactive ores from such mines to produce a chemical concentrate.
This definition includes those mining and milling operations aimed at extracting uranium series or thorium series radionuclides and those aimed at extracting other substances from ores which represent a significant radiological hazard.

model:
An analytical representation or quantification of a real system and the ways in which phenomena occur within that system, used to predict or assess the behaviour of the real system under specified (often hypothetical) conditions.

  • computational model: A calculational tool that implements a mathematical model.
  • conceptual model: A set of qualitative assumptions used to describe a system (or part thereof).
    These assumptions would normally cover, as a minimum, the geometry and dimensionality of the system, initial and boundary conditions, time dependence, and the nature of the relevant physical, chemical and biological processes and phenomena.
  • mathematical model: A set of mathematical equations designed to represent a conceptual model.

monitoring:
1.   The measurement of dose or contamination for reasons related to the assessment or control of exposure to radiation or radioactive substances, and the interpretation of the results. [40]
Measurement is used somewhat loosely here.  The ‘measurement’ of dose often means the measurement of a dose equivalent quantity as a proxy for a dose quantity that cannot be measured directly.  Also, sampling may be involved as a preliminary step to measurement.
Monitoring may be subdivided in two different ways: according to where the measurements are made, into individual monitoring, workplace monitoring, source monitoring and environmental monitoring; and, according to the purpose of the monitoring, into routine monitoring, task related monitoring and special monitoring.

2.   Continuous or periodic measurement of radiological or other parameters or determination of the status of a system.  Sampling may be involved as a preliminary step to measurement.
Although the concept is not fundamentally different from (1), this definition is more suited to the types of monitoring concerned primarily with safety (i.e. keeping sources under control) rather than with protection (i.e. controlling exposure).  This definition is particularly relevant to monitoring of the status of a nuclear installation by tracking plant variables, or monitoring the long term performance of a waste repository by tracking variables such as water fluxes.  These examples differ from definition (1) in that the routine measurements are themselves of no particular interest; the monitoring is only to detect unexpected deviations if they occur.