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Cave deposits

An additional new source of information concerning past ENSO variability are cave deposits. Speleothems form as calcium carbonate crystallizes slowly from cave waters that percolate through adjacent rocks and soils. Speleothem growth rates and isotopic composition have the potential to elucidate changes in nearby ocean temperatures and the regional hydrologic cycle, as they respond to ENSO forcing.

Jenolan wire a tite calcite shawl
Stalagmite