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Field visits

The CRP presented two realistic options to conduct a field visit for coral and/or speleothems sampling to enable scientific ENSO research activities. The final selection of the first field site will require some additional evaluation.




Site #1. Indonesia Archipelago



This site was suggested by Rita Rachmawati, Research Centre for Marine Technology, Agency for Marine and Fisheries Research, Jakarta (RCMT-AFMT). A potential site discussed was that of Raja Ampat, off the western coast West Papua. The selection is pending evaluating the climatic significance of the selected site.


Scientific benefits
The proposed site is within the Western sector of the Pacific region an influenced by ENSO patterns.


Educational / training benefits
The CRP can interact with students and staff at the RCMT. The CRP experts will conduct training sessions in sampling techniques and post-sampling inspection of samples. The CRP experts will present seminars on:


  • Climate change on aspects using corals.

  • Dating techniques based on 14C, U-Th (Uranium-series dating) and d18O.

  • Instruction on data analysis and interpretations.



Site #2. Socotra Island (Yemen)


Socotra island is located in the Northern Indian Ocean and was suggested by Robert Dunbar and Dominik Fleitmann.


Scientific benefit
Climate variability in the western Indian Ocean reflects the combined influence of seasonally changing SST, ocean currents, and monsoon circulation, as well as interannual to decadal variability that is often, but not always, associated with ENSO in the Pacific Ocean. The interaction between climate systems in the Indian and Pacific Ocean is not fully resolved yet. In contrast to the Pacific Ocean where a dense network of coral records exists, in the Indian Ocean there are only a handful of records available. Therefore, it remains unclear to what extent the climate in the northern Indian Ocean is impacted by ENSO or vice versa. In this respect the Socotra Island offers some new and exciting scientific findings. Moreover, there are existing activities with speleothems on the island being conducted by Dominik Fleitmann, Stephen Burns, Albert Matter and Yemeni colleagues. Thus the island is an ideal site where oceanic and terrestrial records can be directly compared. It should be pointed out that the Island is a UNESCO World Heritage Site.


Educational / training benefits
The CRP can interact with students and staff from Sana'a University and Environmental Protection agency on Socotra Island. The CRP experts will conduct training sessions in sampling techniques and post-sampling inspection of samples.



Site #3. Peru



OMZ off Peru
Scripps Supercomputer Center
(Credit: J. Helly)

In this site it is expected to work on laminated sediment cores from the shelf. As the CRP will not have the needed resources to collect these, it is proposed to take advantage of opportunities of ship time as arises and, possibly, exploit cores already collected for other purposes.