Left: VOID paper seals.

Left: DSOS — digital single camera optical surveillance system.

Right: SDIS — server digital image surveillance system.

Left: ALIS — all-in-one surveillance system.

Right: ALIP — all-in-one surveillance portable system.

Left: ATPM system status screen.
Middle: ATPM sensors.
Right: ATPM system cabinet.

Left: VIFC wall mounted detector assembly. Middle: VIFC floor mounted detector assembly.
Right: VIFC system cabinets.

Applying the latest technology

Non-destructive assay

The Hand-held Monitor System Version 5 (HM-5) is a multifunction hand-held radiation measurement system developed to replace ageing outdated equipment and to provide the additional functionalities required for additional protocol activities. The HM-5 implementation programme is well advanced with 108 systems in the inventory and with 58 outdated equipment systems remaining in use. Broad application of these systems will require an increased inventory of these devices.

The Mini-Multi-channel Analyser (MMCA) is a lightweight instrument developed to replace ageing equipment developed in the 1970s. The MMCA implementation programme is well advanced, with 188 systems in the inventory and with 55 of the outdated equipment systems remaining in use. Additional software functionalities continue to be developed for the MMCA, expanding its safeguards applications.

The Inspector Multi-channel Analyser (IMCA) is an instrument developed to replace medium count rate systems used with a number of different detectors for nuclear measurements such as those of plutonium, fresh fuel and spent fuel. The IMCA implementation programme is mature, with 71 systems in the inventory. All systems are being upgraded to current technology by way of trading in the existing instruments for new commercial products.


Unattended radiation monitoring

The VXI Integrated Fuel Monitor CANDU Bundle Counter (VIFB) is a specialized unattended radiation monitoring system developed to replace ageing spent fuel bundle counters in CANDU reactors. The VIFB implementation programme is well matured, with 17 systems installed and only one outdated system remaining to be replaced.


The VXI Integrated Fuel Monitor CANDU Core Discharge Monitor (VIFC) is a specialized unattended radiation monitoring system developed to implement safeguards capabilities to monitor the core fuel inventory in CANDU reactors. The VIFC implementation programme is also well matured, with 19 systems installed and approximately six new installations scheduled for the next two years.


The Advanced Thermo-hydraulic Power Monitor (ATPM) is a system developed to provide a more process based measure of reactor power for research reactor safeguards than that available from power monitors based merely on radiation measurement. The ATPM implementation programme has just started, with one system implemented and seven more purchased.



The All-in-one System (ALIS) is a single camera digital surveillance unit developed to replace ageing film and videotape surveillance systems for easy to access locations. Currently, the programme to replace the older surveillance units with ALIS units is well advanced with 88 units installed. Replacement of the remaining 81 obsolete film or videotape surveillance units will take place in 2003.


The All-in-one Portable System (ALIP) is a single camera portable digital surveillance unit developed to replace ageing film and videotape portable surveillance systems for applications where temporary surveillance is required during specific facility activities. The ALIP implementation programme has just started, with three systems in use to date but approximately 50 required to provide the needed operations support.


The Digital Single Camera Optical Surveillance System (DSOS) is a single camera digital surveillance unit that has been developed to replace ageing film and videotape surveillance systems for difficult to access locations where the camera must be located away from the recording unit. The IAEA has installed 48 DSOS systems to date.

The Server Digital Image Surveillance System (SDIS) is a multicamera digital surveillance system developed for remote and unattended operation with limited multiple camera capability. Able to support up to six cameras, SDIS can also be used to replace single camera systems where they can be combined efficiently. The SDIS system installation programme is well matured with 54 systems supporting 122 installed cameras.

The Digital Multi-camera Optical Surveillance System (DMOS) is a multiple camera digital surveillance system developed for new installations and to replace ageing videotape based multiple camera systems supporting between 6 and 16 cameras each. The DMOS installation programme is underway, with three systems supporting 25 cameras installed and approximately 30 ageing multicamera systems, supporting 342 cameras, targeted for replacement.

Right: DMOS — digital multi-camera optical surveillance system.

The General Advanced Review Station Software (GARS) is a software programme that was developed specifically for the review of all of the digital image surveillance records of the IAEA on a capable desk-top PC. Through GARS, inspectors can review the recorded images and other supplementary ‘state of health’ data. GARS also assists inspectors in the completion of review reports and with performance monitoring activities.

Right: GARS — a desktop computer running GARs software.



The Variable Coding Sealing System (VCOS) is an in situ readable electronic seal. Software upgrades were developed to resolve functionality problems with existing models and to provide additional functionality related to triggering of unattended systems.

The Improved Adhesive Seal (VOID) is a paper seal that is used by IAEA safeguards staff for temporary sealing of equipment and enclosures, developed to replace existing paper seals to improve detection of tampering.

Remote monitoring

Largely depending on the communications costs, remote monitoring can reduce the overall inspection implementation costs. In the safeguards context, remote monitoring is generally considered to mean the transmission of images and data off-site to IAEA headquarters, or to an IAEA regional office or field office. Cost effectiveness is a prime justification for adding this feature to unattended monitoring systems. If data can be sent to an inspector then the frequency of inspection visits to a facility can be reduced, thus saving both time and expense. Currently, the IAEA has 63 cameras and other monitoring devices connected to 27 remote monitoring systems established in five countries.

Remote ‘state of health’ monitoring, where only information regarding the status of the monitoring equipment is transmitted, allows the IAEA to remotely monitor the performance of an instrument. This technique can provide useful information and assist in the efficient scheduling of maintenance activities. Currently, the IAEA has five unattended monitoring systems in two countries providing remote ‘state of health’ data.

Remote monitoring of containment and surveillance systems.

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MMCA with a CdZTe detector.

IMCA with a germanium detector.














VCOS — sealing system with reader.






















Left: VIFB data screen.
Middle: VIFB gamma detector.
Right: VIFB system cabinet.