Waste Technology Section
Predisposal Management of Radioactive Waste - Assistance to Member States
The IAEA publications on predisposal cover a range of topics to support the Member States to manage their predisposal activities. In addition to the existing publications, the Waste Technology Section is preparing several documents.
For further information, please contact the Section Contact Point.
Documents under Preparation
- Methodology for Establishing an Inventory of Radioactive Waste and for Assessing the Subsequent Management Needs
- Economics of Radioactive Waste Management
- Organization and Technical Options for Waste Minimization during Operation and Maintenance
- Considerations for the Application of Mobile Processing Systems for Radioactive Waste Management
- Modular Design of Processing and Storage Facilities for Small Volumes of Low and Intermediate Level Radioactive Waste including Disused Sealed Sources
- Processing of Waste from Innovative Types of Reactors and Fuel Cycles
- Approach to Develop Waste Acceptance Criteria for Low and Intermediate Waste
- Techniques and Technologies for the Reduction of Radioactive Discharges from Nuclear Power Reactors
- Minimization of Liquid and Solid Radioactive Waste Generated at NPP Sites (VVER Reactors)
- Selection of Technical Solutions for the Management of Radioactive Waste
- Guidance for the Development of Management System Procedures for Small Scale LILW Predisposal Facilities
- Decay Storage of Radioactive Effluents from Medical and other Institutional Applications and Monitoring during Discharge
- New Predisposal Handbooks
Methodology for Establishing an Inventory of Radioactive Waste and for Assessing the Subsequent Management Needs
The document aims to provide practical guidance for longer-term planning of technical options for waste management activities by use of standardized, comprehensive considerations and methodologies for performing an assessment of local, national and regional waste inventories and forecasts, and the resulting waste management needs.[top]
The document outlines a methodology for estimating the costs of RW management activities, assessing the liability for specific WM strategy, and provides examples of application of this methodology in a typical end-to-end evaluation of life cycle WM costs for alternative strategies.[top]
The objective of this document is to identify the principles and organizational, maintenance and operating measures that will facilitate the minimization of radioactive waste from nuclear facilities during operation and maintenance. The principles and measures for waste minimization are derived from a review of the lessons learned from the operational experience gained by Member States to date.[top]
The primary objective of this document is to provide the basic information required to determine whether a mobile waste processing system is better than a fixed installation and for selecting mobile waste processing technologies for specific applications and determining feasibility for deployment. Information on the basic design features of a number of existing mobile systems is provided for helping in the screening process. Additionally, more detailed technical information and data on process, components, interface, material handling are included for a couple of mobile systems as examples.[top]
Modular Design of Processing and Storage Facilities for Small Volumes of Low and Intermediate Level Radioactive Waste Including Disused Sealed Sources
This work is targeted at Member States generating small volumes of radioactive waste including disused sealed sources from nuclear applications and research. To be published as a design engineering package for modular waste processing and storage facilities, it includes a number of processing and storage module options and provides guidance on selection of the appropriate options for particular applications. It is expected that the user will be able to develop technical specifications with adequate design descriptions for procurement of detailed design and construction services for waste processing and storage.
This work compliments previous work on Reference Design for a Centralized Waste Processing and Storage Facility (TECDOC-776, 1994) and Reference Design for a Centralized Spent Sealed Sources Facility (TECDOC-806, 1995). [top]
The objective of this document is to:
- Describe a systematic methodology for identifying the types of waste expected to be generated from innovative reactor designs and corresponding nuclear fuel cycles with emphasis on potentially problematic wastes (e.g. wastes which are substantially different from those produced by the current generation of reactors and fuel cycles);
- Provide some examples of waste streams identified by this methodology;
- Discuss the technology needed for processing of the waste and its final destination and identify problematic waste for which no processing technology is available at present;
- Identify if there are any potential or known sever challenges or show-stoppers to the further development of various innovative reactors and fuel cycles resulting from new or existing waste types; and
- Recommend further research and studies.
This document is intended to provide guidance for the development, implementation and application of waste acceptance criteria that comply with the requirements for handling, processing, storage, transportation, and disposal of radioactive waste. The document will in particular assist waste generators, waste conditioners, and waste package producers as well as radioactive waste management organizations, operators of storage facilities and repositories in selecting and addressing the most relevant operational and safety parameters.[top]
The document includes a review of the available information on quantities and characteristics of liquid and gaseous effluents released from nuclear power reactors of type BWR, PWR, VVER and PHWR. Abatement technologies, techniques and good practices being implemented at different reactor sites for reducing radioactive discharges are reviewed and guidance is provided on how an existing programme can be evaluated and optimized.
The publication is targeted at nuclear power plant design engineers, operators, effluent managers and regulatory authorities.[top]
A five year programme was initiated in 2008 related to benchmarking of liquid and solid waste generated by VVER reactors which is expected to result in improved performance in waste management through cost and volume reduction, enhanced safety at the operator, public and environmental levels, and the establishment of a process of continuous improvement of NPPs with VVER reactors. The main purpose is to establish a database and a system for collecting data and to provide status reports back to the users. Key results, lessons learned and recommendations will be documented in this technical report.
The objective of this publication is to:
- Identify and critically review the criteria to be considered while selecting waste management technologies;
- Summarize, evaluate, rank and compare the different technical solutions; and
- Offer a systematic approach for selecting the best possible solution.
The document is most effectively used as an initial cutting tool to identify whether any given process and/or technology would best serve the specific waste management strategy in terms of the waste generated (current and forecast inventory), performance requirements, safety, technical complexity, available economic resources, environmental impact considerations, and the end product (output) of the process/technology.
The publication is a technical support document for the IAEA Nuclear Energy Series No. NW-G-1.1 “Policies and Strategies for Radioactive Waste Management”. [top]
Guidance for the Development of Management System Procedures for Small Scale LILW Predisposal Facilities
The objective of this document is to assist waste management organizations in the development of management system procedures for the operation of small scale LILW processing and storage facilities. The targeted practices and/or operations are receipt, pretreatment (sorting, segregation and characterization), treatment, conditioning, transfer (internal relocation) and storage of LILW, including disused sealed radioactive sources (DSRS).[top]
Decay Storage of Radioactive Effluents from Medical and other Institutional Applications and Monitoring during Discharge
The objective of this document is to provide guidance on the administrative and technical issues for the management of low level radioactive effluents intended for discharge to the environment. This may or may not include a decay storage arrangement prior to discharge. This document is aimed at providing helpful advice to the operators of all types of medical and institutional facilities generating liquid radioactive effluents, irrespective of the frequency of generation and consistent with the volumes specified in the scope.[top]
The IAEA is preparing a series of comprehensive state-of-the-art technical handbooks that cover the full range of predisposal waste management steps by consolidating, restructuring and updating information in a large number of existing Agency publications in this area.
The new handbooks will be published as Nuclear Energy Series (NES) Technical Reports. The following is a list of handbooks that are proposed to be prepared over the next few years:
- Characterization, categorization and monitoring of radioactive waste, waste forms and waste packages (ongoing)
- Pre-treatment of low and intermediate level liquid and solid waste
- Treatment of low and intermediate level liquid waste (ongoing)
- Treatment of low and intermediate level solid waste
- Management of gaseous waste (ongoing)
- Conditioning of low and intermediate level liquid, solidified and solid waste including DSRS
- Processing of high level waste and spent nuclear fuel declared as waste (ongoing)
- Storage of radioactive waste and conditioned waste packages (ongoing)
These handbooks are being developed with similar table of content to assist professionals in Member States involved in field implementation of predisposal facilities by providing information on selection of technical options, design and operation in a structured way.
The handbooks also collect lessons learned and operating experiences.