Support for Innovative Fast Reactor Technology
Development and Deployment
Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor (PFBR) at Kalpakkam, India: construction initiated
China Experimental Fast Reactor (CEFR), first grid connection
The Russian sodium-cooled fast reactor BN-800: construction initiated
It is generally recognized that long term development of nuclear power as a part of the world's future energy mix will require fast reactor technology with closed fuel cycle. The fast neutron spectrum allows fast reactors to increase the energy yield from natural uranium by a factor of sixty to seventy compared to thermal reactors, granting therefore realization of nuclear power programmes for thousands of years, as well as a significant improvement of nuclear waste management. It is for these reasons that fast reactors have been under development for decades in several countries, primarily as breeders and, in recent years, also as High-Level Waste burners.
The Japanese loop-type sodium-cooled fast reactor Monju
The necessary condition for successful deployment in the near and mid-term is the understanding and assessment of technological and design options, based on both past knowledge and experience, as well as on scientific and technological research efforts.
With regard to the first, the design and operation of several sodium-cooled fast reactors, such as the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) in USA, the small size Prototype Fast Reactor in the United Kingdom, the prototype Phénix in France, the BN-350 in Kazakhstan, the demonstration plant BN-600 in Russia, Monju in Japan, the commercial size Superphénix in France, etc. have provided an operational experience base of about 400 reactor-years. In addition, there is a considerable base of experience with lead-bismuth (eutectic) cooled propulsion (submarine) reactors operated in Russia.
The Russian sodium-cooled fast reactor BN-600
In operation since 1980
Examples of current sodium-cooled fast reactors are the China Experimental Fast Reactor (CEFR), which has been connected to the grid in July 2011, the Russian BN-800 and the Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor (PFBR) in India, both under construction.
Besides current fast reactors construction projects, several countries are engaged in intense research and development programmes for the development of fast reactors innovative (GENIV) concepts. In order to establish multilateral international cooperative frameworks to carry out R&D in support to the next generation nuclear reactors, the following initiatives have been launched:
- the Generation IV International forum (GIF)
- the IAEA - International Project on Innovative Nuclear Reactors and Fuel Cycles (INPRO)
- European Sustainable Nuclear Industrial Initiative (ESNII)
Areas of interest for international collaboration are identified by Member States through participation in the IAEA Nuclear Energy Department's Technical Working Group on Fast Reactors (TWG-FR). The TWG-FR consists in a group of experts to provide advice and support programme implementation, reflecting a global network of excellence and expertise in the area of advanced technologies and R&D for fast reactors and sub-critical hybrid .
Fast Reactors Data (as of December 2011)
|Fast Reactors in the World (experimental, demonstration and power reactors)|
|Number of units in operation/non-permanent shutdown||6|
|Number of units under construction||2|
|Number of countries with/constructing fast reactors||4|
Meetings and Conferences
|25-27 Mar||Consultancy Meeting on Development of a Catalogue on Experimental Infrastructures in Support of Liquid Metal Fast Neutron Systems||IAEA, Vienna, Austria|
|14-16 Apr||Technical Meeting on Priorities in Modelling and Simulation for Fast Neutron Systems||IAEA, Vienna, Austria|
|28-30 Apr||Technical Meeting on the Construction and Commissioning of Fast Reactors||Kalpakkam, India|
|19-23 May||47th Meeting of the Technical Working Group on Fast Reactors||IAEA, Vienna, Austria|
|26-28 May||Second Research Coordination Meeting on Sodium Properties and Safe Operation of Experimental Facilities in Support of the Development and Deployment of Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactors||IAEA, Vienna, Austria|
|10-11 Jun||Joint IAEA-GIF Technical Meeting/Workshop on Safety of Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactors||IAEA, Vienna, Austria|
|2-5 Dec||Technical Meeting on the Status of the IAEA Fast Reactor Knowledge Preservation Initiative||IAEA, Vienna, Austria|
Coordinated Research Projects (CRPs)
CRPs recently completed
- Analyses of and Lessons Learned from the Operational Experience with Fast Reactor Equipment and Systems
- Analytical and Experimental Benchmark Analyses of Accelerator Driven Systems (ADS)
- Benchmark Analyses of Sodium Natural Convection in the Upper Plenum of the MONJU Reactor Vessel
- Control Rod Withdrawal and Sodium Natural Circulation Tests Performed during the PHENIX End-of-Life Experiments
- INPRO Collaborative Project: "Integrated Approach for the Modelling of Safety Grade Decay Heat Removal System for Liquid Metal Reactors"
CRPs in progress
- Benchmark Analyses of an EBR-II Shutdown Heat Removal Test
- Sodium properties and design and safe operation of experimental facilities in support of the development and deployment of Sodium Cooled Fast Reactors (SFR)
- The Source Term for Radioactivity Release Under Fast Reactor Core Disruptive Accident (CDA) conditions
- Benchmark exercise on neutronic calculations for a mixed-oxide fuelled core of an industrial size Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor
- IAEA TECDOC 1700 (2013) BN-600 MOX Core Benchmark Analysis
(Results from Phases 4 and 6 of a Coordinated Research Project on Updated Codes and Methods to Reduce the Calculational Uncertainties of the LMFR Reactivity Effects)
- IAEA Nuclear Energy Series NP-T-1.9 (2013) Design Features and Operating Experience of Experimental Fast Reactors
- Booklet Status of innovative fast reactors designs and concepts
- IAEA TECDOC 1703 (2013) Benchmark Analyses on the Natural Circulation Test Performed during the PHENIX End-of-life Experiments
- IAEA TECDOC 1691 (2013) Status of Fast Reactor Research and Technology Development
- IAEA Nuclear Energy Series NP-T-1.6 (2012) Liquid Metal Coolants for Fast Reactors (Reactors Cooled by Sodium, Lead and Lead-bismuth Eutectic)
- IAEA TECDOC 1623 (2010) BN-600 Hybrid Core Benchmark Analyses
- Fast Reactors and Related Fuel Cycles: Challenges and Opportunities (FR09)
Proceedings of the International Conference Held in Kyoto, Japan, 7-11 December 2009, published in 2011
- IAEA TECDOC 1626 (2009) Advanced Reactor Technology Options for Utilization and Transmutation of Actinides in Spent Nuclear Fuel
- IAEA TECDOC 1633 (2009) Decommissioning of Fast Reactors after Sodium Draining
- IAEA TECDOC 1569 (2007) Liquid Metal Cooled Reactors: Experience in Design and Operation
- IAEA TECDOC 1520 (2006) Theoretical and Experimental Studies of Heavy Liquid Metal Thermal Hydraulics
- IAEA TECDOC 1531 (2006) Fast Reactor Database - 2006 Update
Publications under preparation
- Lessons Learned from the Operational Experience with Fast Reactor Equipment and Systems
- Accelerator Driven Systems - Energy Generation and Transmutation of Nuclear Waste. Status Report
- Final Report of the CRP on "Benchmark Analyses of Sodium Natural Convection in the Upper Plenum of the MONJU Reactor Vessel"
- Benchmark analyses on the control rod withdrawal test performed during the PHENIX end-of-life experiments
Please contact NENP Technology Development Section - Contact Point if you have any questions.