Sessions of the
III: The Future of Nuclear in Member States
Moderator: Mr. Ishfaq Ahmad, Chairman, Pakistan Atomic
8: The Role of Nuclear Power for
the OECD - Present Issues and Future Perspectives
Mr. Luis E. Echávarri, Director General, OECD NEA
This Forum comes at a very appropriate moment, as countries
are presently planning their energy strategies for the
new millennium. I would like to thank the IAEA for having
invited the Nuclear Energy Agency of the OECD to present
the role of nuclear power in OECD countries.
When looking toward the next century, it is clear that
only policies which meet sustainable development criteria
can be maintained. The OECD has pioneered the promotion
of economic and social policies which are compatible
with sustainable development. If we look at the Mission
of the OECD established more than 50 years ago, in 1947,
we see that it is the "promotion of policies to achieve
the highest sustainable economic growth and employment,…."
The OECD is currently preparing a comprehensive report
on Sustainable Development for the OECD Ministerial
meeting of 2001. The NEA’s participation in this entails
establishing the background of the nuclear energy component.
While the NEA report will not be finalized until the
end of next year, let me make some comments on how to
relate sustainable development to nuclear energy.
The OECD considers that sustainable development policies
have to incorporate three key elements, namely: globalization,
linking economic, environmental and social dimensions,
and having civil society as an active partner. Regarding
the first factor - the need for global solutions to
solve problems related to sustainable development, nuclear
energy unquestionably occupies a favourable position.
9: A Role for Nuclear Power in
Mr. Ronaldo A.C. Fabrício, President, Eletronuclear-Eletrobrás
Termonuclear S.A, Brazil
Energy, particularly electricity, is essential to economic
and social development and improved quality of life.
Electricity demand continues to grow worldwide, particularly
in OECD countries, in spite of drastic efforts to increase
efficiency and energy savings. Electricity growth in
developing countries is expected to continue to be much
faster than in present high-income countries. By the
middle of the next century, today’s developing countries
should have experienced a ten-fold increase in their
power capacity compared to a doubling of the capacity
in high-income countries. In Brazil, electricity demand
has been growing much faster than primary energy and
the economy, and this is expected to continue in the
future. The concept of sustainable development used
in the entire world today calls for the alleviation
and mitigation of environmental impacts. By the beginning
of the next century, all forms of primary energy for
electricity production will be needed if global sustainable
development is to be achieved. In this context, there
is a moral obligation to utilize those energy resources
which lead to the lowest possible environment impacts.
In the power sector, there is a limited number of options
that are technically mature and economically competitive
which could substitute for fossil-fuel burning. Nuclear
power is one of the electricity-generating options that
has to be used if an environmentally-friendly development
is to be achieved. This paper will demonstrate that
nuclear power in Brazil has already started to make
a contribution, however modest, to reducing the emissions
of gas polluters, particularly greenhouse gases. Its
future role will be important.
10: The Role of Nuclear Power
in Transition Economies (FSU and CEE)
Mr. Yuri Shcherbak, Presidential Adviser, Ukraine
The paper offers an analysis of the nuclear power option
in the countries of Central and Eastern Europe and the
Former Soviet Union. It is focused on the common characteristics
of nuclear power programmes in these countries, e.g.:
restructuring of industry, decline in energy consumption
and the role of nuclear power;
changes in national nuclear legislation;
lack of fully developed nuclear fuel cycle and facilities;
deficiency in infrastructure which can support sustainable
operation of nuclear power plants.
paper will cover the full spectrum of issues (legal
structure, management and regulation of nuclear power,
operational questions, modernization and life management
of nuclear power plants, supply of nuclear fuel, management
of radioactive wastes and spent fuel and emergency preparedness).
Questions on construction of new reactors and decommissioning
of existing ones and the relationship with the public
are also discussed.
Russia is included in this analysis insofar as it has
a complete fuel cycle and infrastructure of its own
to develop and support a nuclear power option. Other
countries, such as Romania and Slovenia, also do not
fall within the scope of the paper as they operate western-designed
nuclear power plants.
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